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谢文冬,贾嘉,卜长利,马黎明,郭建刚,宋凯,李欣海,孙悦华,方昀.2022.燕山地区国家重点保护鸟类生境评估与国家级自然保护区保护空缺分析.动物学杂志,57(2):170-184.
燕山地区国家重点保护鸟类生境评估与国家级自然保护区保护空缺分析
Comprehensive Assessment of Habitats of National Key Protected Birds and GAP Analysis of National Nature Reserves in Yanshan Mountains, China
投稿时间:2021-12-04  修订日期:2022-03-07
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202202002
中文关键词:  MaxEnt  燕山  Marxan  景观破碎化  保护空缺  国家级自然保护区  国家重点保护野生鸟类
英文关键词:MaxEnt  Yanshan Mountains  Marxan  Landscape fragmentation  Conservation gap  National nature reserve  National key protected birds
基金项目:生态环境部生物多样性调查与评估项目(No. 2019HJ2096001006)
作者单位E-mail
谢文冬 中国科学院动物研究所动物生态与保护生物学院重点实验室 北京 100101河北大学生命科学学院 保定 071002 Lafayette1899@gmail.com 
贾嘉 中国科学院动物研究所动物生态与保护生物学院重点实验室 北京 100101中国科学院大学 北京 100049 jiajia@ioz.ac.cn 
卜长利 中国科学院动物研究所动物生态与保护生物学院重点实验室 北京 100101中国科学院大学 北京 100049 changlibu@126.com 
马黎明 中国科学院动物研究所动物生态与保护生物学院重点实验室 北京 100101河北大学生命科学学院 保定 071002 maliming717@163.com 
郭建刚 河北雾灵山国家级自然保护区 承德 067399 wlssfz@163.com 
宋凯 中国科学院动物研究所动物生态与保护生物学院重点实验室 北京 100101 songkai2014@sina.com 
李欣海 中国科学院动物研究所动物生态与保护生物学院重点实验室 北京 100101 lixh@ioz.ac.cn 
孙悦华 中国科学院动物研究所动物生态与保护生物学院重点实验室 北京 100101 sunyh@ioz.ac.cn 
方昀 中国科学院动物研究所动物生态与保护生物学院重点实验室 北京 100101 fangyun@ioz.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      燕山地区地处太行山生物多样性保护优先区,紧邻人口密集的京津冀城市群,拥有很高的鸟类物种多样性。为探讨燕山地区的鸟类生境状况与保护效益,本研究以当地40种国家重点保护鸟类为指示物种,利用物种分布模型和Marxan系统保护规划模型进行了保护空缺分析与保护策略优化。研究发现,在燕山地区的鸟类生境中,森林的面积最大(6 537 km2),连贯性最强,而湿地仅有345 km2,占总面积之比为3.3%,且在景观格局中各斑块之间分散程度高。目前燕山地区国家级自然保护区所保护的94.6%为森林与草地生境,湿地生境面积极少。物种分布模型预测重点保护鸟类多样性高的地区偏向于湿地生境,与湖泊的距离因子在模拟过程中贡献度最大。通过Marxan模型分析获得需要优先保护的生物多样性热点区的面积为2 442 km2,比目前保护区面积提高了6倍。热点区内生境类型更加平均,湿地在受保护区域中的生境面积占比提高至7.9%。新规划的热点区中指示物种平均受保护比例由1.2%上升至33.6%,提高了28倍。本研究显示,燕山地区的国家级自然保护区呈现较大的保护空缺,新规划的热点区可为未来燕山地区的国家公园建设和保护规划提供重要依据。
英文摘要:
      [Objectives] China is one of the megadiverse countries with the largest diversity of birds, and the biodiversity in China is facing threats from rapid urbanization and population growth. There are large conservation gaps in eastern China, where most of the populous cities are located. The Yanshan Mountains range is located in the priority area of biodiversity protection, and close to the densely populated Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration, with a high diversity of bird species, however, the distribution patterns and conservation status of national key protected birds in the Yanshan Mountains are still unclear. [Methods] In this study, we used FRAGSTATS (version 4.2) to quantify the landscape pattern of habitats in Yanshan Mountains (Fig. 1) using 5 commonly used parameters and selected 40 national key protected birds as indicators (Fig. 2a) to assess the local habitat and biodiversity protection status. We produced species distribution models for every indicator species using a maximum entropy approach. Marxan was used as an effective method of planning protection units that consider conservation cost of different land use on the basis of the indicator species’ potential distribution. [Results] We found that the forest habitat in Yanshan Mountains has the largest proportion (61.5%) with a total of 6 537 km2 (Fig. 2b) and the least fragmentation (Table 1). Grassland habitat was 1 910 km2, accounting for 18.0%. Agricultural land is 1 438 km2, accounting for 13.5%. The wetland habitat is only 345 km2, accounting for 3.3% (Fig. 2c), including Guanting Reservoir, Miyun Reservoir, Huairou Reservoir and other large water bodies. The area of national nature reserve in Yanshan Mountains is 404 km2, 94.6% of which is forest and grassland, while the area of wetland habitat is very small. Forest-Grassland type is the representative habitat in Yanshan Mountains, occupying the majority of habitats and having good connectivity (Table 1). The patch density of wetland is very low with a high degree of dispersion between patches, resulting in further decrease of connectivity. However, it can be seen from (Fig. 2a) that the diversity of the national key protected birds in wetland habitats is similar to that in forest habitats, and the number of wild birds under national first-class key protection is the largest, indicating the importance of wetland habitat types to biodiversity in Yanshan Mountains. The species distribution model predicted that areas with high biodiversity tended to be around water habitats such as Miyun Reservoir, Guanting Reservoir and Yuqiao Reservoir (Fig. 3a), while very small in forest habitats and there were biodiversity hotspots around Yanqing District. Distance from lakes contributes greatly to the simulation of potential distribution areas, especially in the modeling of wetland birds (Appendix 2). Based on Marxan analysis, the optimal solutions of 2 442 km2 of biodiversity hotspots requiring priority conservation were identified (Fig. 3b) with the original national nature reserves accounting for 16.5% of the hotspots. Totally, 33 species reached the conservation target (Appendix 3), with the average protected percentage of the potential distribution increasing from 1.2% to 33.6%. The proportion of forest and grassland in the biodiversity hotspots is 72.3% and 15.2%, respectively. Totally, 56.3% of the total area of wetland in Yanshan Mountains is included in the hotspot areas (196 km2), accounting for 7.9% (Fig. 3c), strengthening the protection of reservoir and other wetland environments. The number of species in every 1 km × 1 km raster of the biodiversity hotspot for prioritized protection in the forest, wetland and farmland are higher than in the overall range of Yanshan Mountains (Fig. 4), showing the hotspot areas were able to cover the major distribution hotspot of the national key protected birds. The habitat in the biodiversity hotspot requiring prioritized protection identified by the Marxan model is more equalized and diversified, with higher conservation efficiency, compared with the existing national nature reserves. [Conclusion] The protected areas of national nature reserves in Yanshan Mountains present a huge conservation gap of wetland habitat, indicating that the construction of more coherent protected areas in this area is of great significance to the protection of national key protected birds in highly urbanized areas. Areas of high landscape heterogeneity exhibited higher biodiversity but a lower proportion of protection with the need for more thorough field investigation. Our approach of conservation gap analysis for threatened birds on a multi-species and multi-habitat scale will be helpful for future conservation planning in densely populated areas.
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