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彭子睿,王全超,唐永政,王艳霞,丁茹馨,姜少玉,李宝泉.2022.四种常见蟹类对光棘球海胆的捕食策略.动物学杂志,57(2):247-255.
四种常见蟹类对光棘球海胆的捕食策略
Predation Strategies of Four Common Crabs on Sea Urchins Mesocentrotus nudus with Different Sizes
投稿时间:2021-09-02  修订日期:2022-01-13
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202202010
中文关键词:  光棘球海胆  梭子蟹科  弓蟹科  捕食行为  猎物选择
英文关键词:Mesocentrotus nudus  Portunidae  Varunidae  Predative behavior  Prey selection
基金项目:美丽中国生态文明建设科技工程专项(No. XDA23050304),中国科学院国际合作局国际伙伴计划项目(No. 133137KYSB20200002)
作者单位E-mail
彭子睿 烟台大学海洋学院 烟台 264005中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所 烟台 264003 2506276792@qq.com 
王全超 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所 烟台 264003 qcwang@yic.ac.cn 
唐永政 烟台大学海洋学院 烟台 264005 13906380063@163.com 
王艳霞 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所 烟台 264003 中国科学院大学 北京 100049 1053268323@qq.com 
丁茹馨 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所 烟台 264003浙江海洋大学 舟山 316022 m181585188846@163.com 
姜少玉 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所 烟台 264003中国科学院大学 北京 100049 15853146782@163.com 
李宝泉 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所 烟台 264003 bqli@yic.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      光棘球海胆(Mesocentrotus nudus)是维持海藻生态系统稳定的关键种,同时也是北方重要的经济海胆类。目前对黄渤海地区光棘球海胆的种群生态学研究还不足,对影响其种群数量动态的因素尚不明确。为探明光棘球海胆的捕食者种类及其捕食策略,选择平背蜞(Gaetice depressus)、肉球近方蟹(Hemigrapsus sanguineus)、三疣梭子蟹(Portunus trituberculatus)及日本蟳(Charybdis japonica)4种常见蟹类为研究对象,验证其是否可作为光棘球海胆的潜在捕食者。选用三种不同壳直径的海胆作为实验材料,即小规格12 ~ 15 mm、中规格19 ~ 22 mm和大规格30 ~ 33 mm。分析四种蟹类的捕食策略时使用中、小规格海胆,分析日本蟳的猎物选择时使用三种规格海胆。结果表明,4种蟹类均能捕食小规格海胆,其中,三疣梭子蟹和日本蟳捕食强度较高;对于中规格海胆,仅有三疣梭子蟹和日本蟳能捕食。4种蟹类在捕食大、中规格海胆时均会改变捕食策略,表现出相似的捕食行为。日本蟳的捕食选择模式为被动选择,选择性强弱与螯足大小有关,螯足较小的个体更倾向于捕食小规格海胆,而螯足较大的个体对小、中规格海胆的捕食率无显著差异。本研究结果表明,平背蜞、肉球近方蟹、三疣梭子蟹和日本蟳均为光棘球海胆的潜在捕食者,并且会根据猎物的情况调整捕食策略。
英文摘要:
      [Objectives] Mesocentrotus nudus is a key species in maintaining the stability of the kelp ecosystem and a valuable economic sea urchin species in northern China. However, little researches focus on its population ecology, and the factors impacting the population dynamics are still not clear. Gaetice depressus, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Portunus trituberculatus and Charybdis japonica are four common crab species off the coast of China and are potential predators of M. nudus. In order to explore the predation strategies and predation intensities of four crab species and the predation selectivities of C. japonica on different sizes of M. nudus, three different groups of body sizes of M. nudus individuals, e.g., small sized (12﹣15 mm), medium sized (19﹣22 mm) and large sized (30﹣33 mm in diameter) were selected as the research objects. [Methods] Two sets of experiments were conducted in the laboratory. In the predation strategies and predation intensities experiment, each species of crabs was divided into two groups separately containing small and medium sized sea urchins, while the predation selective experiment contains a C. japonica and three sizes of urchins in a single experimental group. The data was analyzed using Excel and Spss16.0, and the significance was inspected using one-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis in both sets of experiment, and Ivlev indexes were calculated to examine the predation selectivity of C. japonica on small and medium sized sea urchins. [Results] The results showed that four crab species could prey on the small sized sea urchin individuals, of which, the P. trituberculatus and C. japonica showed higher predation intensity on sea urchins (8.67 ± 1.53 and 9.33 ± 1.15, respectively, Table 2); whereas only P. trituberculatus and C. japonica consumed the medium sized sea urchins (Table 2). As for the predation strategies, four crab species presented diverse kinds of strategies on different sizes of sea urchins but showed similar predation behavior when encountering difficulties of crushing the urchins (Fig. 1). The predation and selection pattern of C. japonica belong to a kind of passive selection, and the selectivity was closely related to the size of its cheliped. Crabs with smaller cheliped had relatively high selective feeding index on small sized sea urchins (Fig. 2), while individuals with bigger cheliped showed no significant differencein predation rate for small and medium size sea urchins (one-way ANOVA, P > 0.05) (Fig. 2). [Conclusion] This study reveals that G. depressus, H. sanguineus, P. trituberculatus and C. japonica are all potential predator of sea urchin M. nudus. Moreover, they can adapt their hunting strategies according to the preys with different body size, predation capacity is a key factor to the prey selectivity of C. japonica.
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