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何祥博,何柳熠,刘雪华,Melissa Songer,何念军,唐流斌,杜扶阳.2022.带状间伐对巴山木竹林复壮更新及大熊猫取食的影响.动物学杂志,57(1):1-8.
带状间伐对巴山木竹林复壮更新及大熊猫取食的影响
Study on Regeneration of and Giant Panda Feeding on Bashnia Bamoo Forest after Strip Thinning
投稿时间:2021-07-16  修订日期:2022-01-07
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202201001
中文关键词:  带状间伐  竹林复壮更新  大熊猫  采食
英文关键词:Strip thinning  Bamboo forest regeneration  Giant Panda  Feeding
基金项目:大熊猫国际合作项目(林护发[2017]115号)
作者单位E-mail
何祥博 陕西佛坪国家级自然保护区管理局 佛坪 723400 fpxiangbo@163.com 
何柳熠 山东科技大学测绘学院 青岛 266590 1748680590@qq.com 
刘雪华 清华大学环境学院 北京 100084 xuehua-hjx@tinghua.edu.cn 
Melissa Songer Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Front Royal, Virginia 22630, USA  
何念军 陕西佛坪国家级自然保护区管理局 佛坪 723400 1055829743@qq.com 
唐流斌 陕西佛坪国家级自然保护区管理局 佛坪 723400 784873396@qq.com 
杜扶阳 陕西省林业局 西安 710082  
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中文摘要:
      间伐是竹林复壮更新的有效手段之一。以陕西佛坪国家自然保护区为研究区域,对大熊猫(Ailuropoda melanoleuca)冬季栖息地非主要采食区域竹林老龄化严重且密度过大的巴山木竹(Bashania fargesii)林进行为期3年(2017至2019年)的带状间伐样方监测,研究间伐对竹林复壮更新以及大熊猫觅食选择的影响。研究结果表明:(1)巴山木竹林带状间伐后首先表现为发笋数和成竹数的明显增加,间伐样方内竹笋和成竹的基径、高度小于对照样方,差异显著,随着时间推移,间伐第三年其基径和高度与对照样方无显著差异;(2)大熊猫表现出对间伐样方的偏好,喜爱在间伐样方内采食竹笋和1 ~ 3年生的成竹,其在样方内采食竹株数和粪便遗留数均显著高于对照样方,大熊猫在间伐样方内的活动时间也多于对照样方。(3)大熊猫在监测样方中出现频次最高的月份为1月、4月、5月和12月,主要分季节采食竹笋和竹叶。因此,小尺度带状间伐(2 m带宽)可以改变竹林年龄结构,改善竹林老化问题,能达到大熊猫采食栖息地范围扩大的目的,可在竹林老化严重或竹林开花的大熊猫栖息地改造中进行逐步推广,也可在人工圈养大熊猫食物基地的保护和管理中推广应用。
英文摘要:
      [Objectives] Bamboo forest thinning is one of the effective ways of bamboo forest regeneration. To determine the effects of thinning on the regeneration of Bashania bamboo forests and foraging selection of Giant Pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), we conducted a three-year (2017-2019) monitoring on the belt thinning plots with a size of 30 m × 60 m (Fig. 1) each in the Bashania bamboo forest, which is located in the non-major foraging areas (with old and dense bamboo stems) of Giant Panda in the Foping National Nature Reserve of Shaanxi Province. [Methods] We obtained in total 10 102 group data of bamboo regeneration, 1 119 Giant Panda feeding bamboo data and 32 215 infrared camera trapping data. By using SPSS t test, we analyzed the difference on bamboo regeneration between the belt thinning plots and the control plots with P < 0.05 representing a significant difference and P ≥ 0.05 representing no significant difference. We also counted the numbers of selected bamboo shoots, mature bamboos and produced feces by Giant Pandas, and calculated the occurring frequency of Giant Pandas and its sympatric animals based on infrared camera photos in order to insight the impacts of bamboo thinning on its regeneration and Giant Pandas’ food selecting. [Results] Our results showed that (1) about bamboo shoots, theie number increased significantly in the thinning plots, and the basal diameters (Fig. 2) and heights (Fig. 3) in the belt thinning plots are significantly smaller than the ones in the control plots (Except height of bamboo shoots in the 1st year), and no significant difference in the 3rd year. (2) About the mature bamboo stems, their number increased also significantly in the thinning plots, and the basal diameters (Fig. 4) and heights (Fig. 5) in the strip thinning plots are significantly smaller than the ones in the control plots (Except height of mature bamboo in the 2nd year), and no significant difference in the 3rd year. (3) The Giant Panda showed a preference to the thinning plots with more feeding on bamboo shoots and young bamboos. The numbers of bamboo stems selected and feces deposited in the thinning plots were significantly higher than those in the control ones (Table 1). Giant Pandas show a longer duration of staying in thinning plots (Fig. 6). (4) The total 23 species including Giant Panda and other sympatric species through camera trapping in the thinning plots (Fig. 7), and the highest occurrence of the Giant Pandas in the months of January, April, May and December with feeding on bamboo shorts and leaves. [Conclusion] Therefore, 2 m-width strip thinning can change the age structure of bamboo forest, improve its ageing problem and increase the range of suitable habitat for giant panda forging. We can gradually generalize this strip thinning technique in the habitat of Giant Pandas with seriously aging bamboo forest, and can be applied in protection and management of the food base areas of the captured Giant Pandas.
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