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尹江南,余高阳,努尔索力坦·恰汗,胡骞,王悦,李建强.2021.大山雀身体大小的性二态及其季节变化.动物学杂志,56(6):826-835.
大山雀身体大小的性二态及其季节变化
Sexual Size Dimorphism and Its Seasonal Variation in Cinereous Tit Parus cinereus
投稿时间:2021-05-04  修订日期:2021-09-03
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202106004
中文关键词:  大山雀  身体量度  身体大小性二态  季节变化
英文关键词:Cinereous Tit, Parus major  Morphological measurements  Sexual size dimorphism  Seasonal variation
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(No. 2017YFC1403500),国家自然科学基金项目(No. 31970421)
作者单位E-mail
尹江南 北京林业大学生态与自然保护学院 jiangnan_yin@126.com 
余高阳 北京林业大学生态与自然保护学院 ygy95525@sina.com 
努尔索力坦·恰汗 北京林业大学生态与自然保护学院 newuncia@163.com 
胡骞 北京林业大学生态与自然保护学院 huqian1995@bjfu.edu.cn 
王悦 北京林业大学生态与自然保护学院 wangyue1996@bjfu.edu.cn 
李建强 北京林业大学生态与自然保护学院 lijianqiang@bjfu.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      动物中普遍存在雌雄个体身体大小的性二态现象。了解近缘种之间身体大小性二态现象的差异,可为深入探讨身体大小性二态现象的潜在驱动机制提供证据。国外对欧亚大山雀(Parus major)的研究发现,其喙长、跗跖长、翅长等6项身体大小指标存在着明显的性二态,且喙长的性二态存在季节间差异。大山雀(P. cinereus)曾被作为欧亚大山雀的一个亚种,其形态和行为与欧亚大山雀存在着诸多相似之处。为探讨大山雀是否也存在身体大小性二态及季节性差异,本研究分析了2018至2020年间在河南董寨国家级自然保护区捕捉的226只(雌性96只和雄性130只)大山雀的喙长、头喙长、跗跖长、翅长、尾长和体长这6项体征指标的两性差异及其季节变化。结果显示,大山雀上述6项身体大小指标均存在不同程度的性二态现象,且雄性个体仅喙长与雌性的差异不显著,其余5项指标均显著大于雌性。此外,身体大小指标的两性差异不随季节显著变化,但两性的跗跖长在秋季均显著短于冬季和繁殖季,尾长在繁殖季均显著长于秋季和冬季。上述结果表明,大山雀身体大小的性二态及其季节性差异与欧亚大山雀并不完全相似。无论其身体大小存在性二态和季节变化的原因,还是其与欧亚大山雀在身体大小性二态模式上的差别,都有待今后进一步研究。
英文摘要:
      Sexual size dimorphism is common in animals. Understanding the differences in sexual dimorphism of body size between closely related species could provide evidence for insight into the underlying mechanisms driving sexual dimorphism of body size. Previous studies on Great Tit (Parus major) and many other birds have reported obvious sexual size dimorphism in morphometric traits such as bill length, tarsus length and wing length, and that the sexual size dimorphism of bill length of Great Tit may vary by seasons. The Cinereous Tit (P. cinereus) was once regarded as a subspecies of the Great Tit and it is similar to the Great Tit in various aspects of morphology and behaviors. Aiming to provide supplementary information about the interspecific difference in sexual size dimorphism between closely related species, we explored sexual and seasonal differences of Cinereous Tit in six morphometric traits including bill length, bill-head length, tarsus length, wing length, tail length and body length. From 2018 to 2020, a total of 226 individuals (96 females and 130 males) were captured in the Dongzhai National Nature Reserve of Henan Province, China. The relationships of each of the above morphometric traits with sex and season were analyzed using linear mixed models, in which each morphometric trait was treated as the dependent variable, and sex, season and their interaction as explanatory variables. Moreover, as there were three persons who attended the measurements of the birds, person ID was treated as a random factor to account for inter-person differences in measurements. The results showed that there were different degrees of sexual size dimorphism among the six morphological traits (Table 1), and the males were significantly larger than the females in all traits except bill length which showed no significant differences between the sexes. Moreover, seasonal variation was found for tarsus length and tail length: the tarsus length in autumn was significantly shorter than that in winter and breeding season, while the tail length in breeding season was significantly longer than that in autumn and winter. Despite of the seasonal differences in bill length and tail length, the sexual differences in the six morphological measurements did not significantly change with seasons. These results suggest that the patterns of sexual size dimorphism and seasonal differences of morphological traits of the Cinereous Tit are not same as those of the Great Tit. Future studies are warranted to investigate the reasons for the existence of sexual size dimorphism and seasonal variation of morphological traits in Cinereous Tit as well as the reasons for the inter-specific differences in sexual size dimorphism and seasonal patterns.
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