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闻苡,张蔚,丁利,张宇,慕震,贾炬初,成功,戴蓉.2021.云南腾冲北海湿地自然保护区两栖动物多样性现状.动物学杂志,56(6):844-855.
云南腾冲北海湿地自然保护区两栖动物多样性现状
Amphibian Biodiversity of Beihai Wetland Nature Reserve in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province
投稿时间:2021-04-20  修订日期:2021-11-02
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202106006
中文关键词:  北海湿地  两栖动物  生物多样性  平均动物区系相似性  牛蛙
英文关键词:Beihai Wetland  Amphibians  Biodiversity  Average fauna resemblance  Lithobates catesbeianus
基金项目:生态环境部生物多样性调查、观测和评估项目(2019-2023年)(No. 200046-20190151),中央民族大学双一流生态学学科(No. yldxxk201819)
作者单位E-mail
闻苡 中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院 北京 100081 yiwen2011@yeah.net 
张蔚 腾冲北海湿地省级自然保护区管护局 保山 679100 873276274@qq.com 
丁利 中国科学院成都生物研究所 成都 610041 dingli@cib.ac.cn 
张宇 中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院 北京 100081 zhangyuuwork@163.com 
慕震 中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院 北京 100081 hello_muzhen@126.com 
贾炬初 中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院 北京 100081 2282803072@qq.com 
成功 中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院 北京 100081 chenggong@muc.edu.cn 
戴蓉 生态环境部南京环境科学研究所 南京 210042 dairong@nies.org 
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中文摘要:
      21世纪以来,全球近半的两栖动物在物种和种群水平正受到威胁,我国云南尤为突出。云南腾冲北海湿地具有独特的漂浮状苔草沼泽植被,两栖类是评价生态系统健康的指示类群,进行两栖类资源调查有助于推进湿地保护工作。2019年5月、7月和8月以及2020年5月、6月和9月采用了以样线法为主、访问为辅的方法进行了野外调查,共记录两栖动物21种,包括入侵种1种,其中20种土著种属于2目7科17属。与上一次调查名录(2008年)相比,此次调查增加北海湿地两栖动物新记录5种,包括腾冲掌突蟾(Leptobrachella tengchongensis)、红蹼树蛙(Rhacophorus rhodopus)、白颌大树蛙(Zhangixalus smaragdinus)、背条螳臂树蛙(Chiromantis doriae)以及入侵种牛蛙(Lithobates catesbeianus = Rana catesbeiana);新修订2科8种。用G-F指数进行数据分析,与周边县域进行平均动物区系相似性比较。结果显示,北海湿地两栖类G-F指数为0.432;由平均动物区系相似性比较可知,北海湿地与腾冲(高黎贡山国家级自然保护区)、泸水(高黎贡山国家级自然保护区)、龙陵小黑山省级自然保护区和铜壁关自然保护区盈江片区为周缘关系;外来入侵种牛蛙数量远多于土著种,亟需采取针对性保护措施;需建立北海湿地两栖动物监测体系,作为湿地生态系统健康的指示标准之一。
英文摘要:
      During the 21st century, nearly half of amphibians are facing survival threats for different reasons. In China, such situation is serious in Yunnan Province. A unique floating Carex swamp wetland is in Beihai Wetland, Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, which has an important value of scientific research in China and world. Besides, amphibians have often been thought to serve as a particularly desirable ecological indicator species. They can be used to assess environmental conditions. The amphibian resources survey is beneficial to promote Beihai Wetland protection and restoration. From May, July to August 2019, and from May to June and September 2020, the amphibian resources survey was investigated. The investigative methods were mainly based on transect lines. 8 transect lines were choosen (Table 1). Besides, interviewing helped to confirm species. There were 21 species of amphibians, including 1 invasive species. 20 indigenous species belong to 2 orders, 7 families and 17 genera (Table 2). Compared to the last survey (2008), 5 species were recorded in Beihai Wetland for the first time (Table 4). They were Leptobrachella tengchongensis, Rhacophorus rhodopus, Zhangixalus smaragdinus, Chiromantis doriae and invasive species American Bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus = Rana catesbeiana). 2 families and 8 species were newly revised (Table 4). G-F index was used to analyse data. The G-index reflected the diversity at genus level. The F-index reflected the diversity within and among families. Average fauna resemblance (AFR) was used to compare Beihai Wetland with surrounding areas. Firstly, the results show that the G index of amphibians in Beihai Wetland is 2.842, the F index of amphibians is 5.001 and the G-F index of amphibians is 0.432. Secondly, the average fauna resemblance (AFR) value of Beihai Wetland is similar to Tengchong (Gaoligong Mountain National Natural Reserve), Longling (Xiaoheishan Nature Reserve), Yingjiang (Tongbiguan Nature Reserve) and Lushui (Gaoligong Mountain National Natural Reserve) (Table 3). Thirdly, the abundance of American Bullfrogs is far greater than that of indigenous species. American Bullfrogs have become the dominant species and have formed breeding populations. Therefore it is necessary to take a set of protective measures. Fourthly, it is important to establish a monitoring program for amphibians. The monitoring systems are helpful to evaluate wetland ecological health.
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