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马鸣,陈文杰,李都,李军伟,梅宇,买尔旦·吐尔干.2022.鸟类对新疆农区的危害评估和预防探讨.动物学杂志,57(1):19-28.
鸟类对新疆农区的危害评估和预防探讨
Assessment and Prevention of the Bird Damage in the Agricultural Areas of Xinjiang, the Northwest of China
投稿时间:2021-04-09  修订日期:2022-01-17
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202201003
中文关键词:  人鸟冲突  田野调查  损失程度  鸟害  防范措施  粮食安全  新疆
英文关键词:Conflict  Field investigation  Degree of loss  Bird damage  Preventive measures  Food security  Xinjiang
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No. 31572292,31272291,30970340),国家科技部项目(No. 2008BAC39B04)及生态环境部生物多样性保护重大工程专项
作者单位E-mail
马鸣 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 乌鲁木齐 830011 maming@ms.xjb.ac.cn 
陈文杰 和田地区公安局森林分局 和田 848000 18999059305@189.cn 
李都 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 乌鲁木齐 830011 maming3211@sina.com 
李军伟 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 乌鲁木齐 830011 lijunwei@ms.xjb.ac.cn 
梅宇 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 乌鲁木齐 830011 meiyu@ms.xjb.ac.cn 
买尔旦·吐尔干 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 乌鲁木齐 830011 maierdan@ms.xjb.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      长期以来,鸟类对人类造成的危害一直是一个世界性的问题,涉及到多个行业,造成经济损失,且难以防控。本文旨在摸清对新疆农业造成损失的鸟类种类及危害程度,阐述鸟类出没规律,进而提出科学有效的防治措施。2019至2021年,基于样线法、问卷法、田间观测与取样法、防鸟粘网计数、物种鉴定与胃容物解剖等,在新疆的墨玉、乌什、拜城和昌吉大范围布设观测点,对农田、果园、水库等典型生境进行调查,得出现有害鸟种类以及受害的类型、损失程度、预防措施、经济补偿等,最后完成鸟害评估。共记录到对农业有害鸟类10目19科40属49种(类),已超出了新疆鸟类种数的10%。它们危害作物包括玉米、小麦、水稻、葡萄、红枣、油葵等,其中以冬小麦(52.9%)和酿酒葡萄(14.4%)损失较大。除此以外,也会对收获中的土豆、西瓜、甜瓜、核桃、草莓、枸杞等构成危害。对于整个调查区域而言,鸟类光顾或平均取食的概率约为28.6%,呈由北向南递减的规律(R2 = 0.893,P < 0.05)。抽样分析,估计一些地方收成减产或损失达26.6%。即使如此,当地农民却较少采取预防措施,仅有18.0%的农户采取了防范措施(如大喇叭、粘鸟网、稻草人、驱鸟剂等)。目前,保险理赔与政府补贴微乎其微,低于9.53%或无。最后,笔者探讨了国内外驱鸟与粮食安全措施,包括生物防治、化学驱鸟和物理恐吓等。一些方法会伤及无辜种类,如一些猛禽和食虫鸟类。未来鸟类与人类的冲突将会愈演愈烈,同时折射出野生动物生存与人类发展之间的尴尬处境。其实,有效地防止鸟害,也是为了更好地保护鸟类。
英文摘要:
      Damage or loss from bird activity is a worldwide concern, impacting many industries (including agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and electric power distribution), aircraft safety, epidemic disease transmission, and human health. Bird damage can cause huge economic losses, and it is difficult to prevent and control. [Objectives] Our goal is to compile a list of birds which damages to crops in Xinjiang Provence, the northwest of China. On the basis of understanding their patterns of activity, we propose effective control measures. [Methods] Our study was based on transect censuses, questionnaires, bird counts in mist-nets, and bird stomach contents. We set up observation points in Moyu, Wushi, Baicheng and Changji counties, with a latitudinal span from N 37° to N 44°, and a range of habitat types including farmland, orchard and reservoirs, over the period from 2019 to 2021. Different hazard levels were preliminarily divided through field observations, bird quantity census, feed intake and questionnaire analysis (n = 881 persons or families), (Table 1). [Results] A total of 49 bird species were recorded in 40 genera, 19 families and 10 orders harmful to agriculture, which has exceeded more than 10% of the number of bird species in Xinjiang. These species mainly damaged corn, wheat, rice, grapes, dates, oil sunflower, potatoes, watermelons, common melons, walnuts, strawberries, and Chinese wolfberry. Among these losses, winter wheat (52.9%) and wine grape (14.4%) were the most significant. For the whole investigation area, the probability of bird presence is about 28.6% (Table 2), which decreases from north to south (R2 = 0.893, P < 0.05). In some places, it is estimated that the harvest could be damaged by approximately 26.6%. Only 18.0% of farmers use big horns, mist-nets, scarecrows, chemicals, or other measures to take preventive measures. At present, insurance claims and government subsidies are very small, less than 9.53% (sometimes no any relief or compensation). In order to prevent harm, some farmers have set up sticky bird nets or traps in the farmland. The most common birds caught by the nets were starlings (44.8%) and sparrows (28.4%). The diet of starling which the so-called beneficial bird in China has changed greatly, which is closely related to excessive reclamation and heavy use of pesticides. In addition, sparrows and starlings not only made harms to cereal crops, but also to fruit crops. The conflict between birds and humans has lasted for thousands of years, and in 1950s, there was even a great national movement to eliminate “sparrows” in China. [Conclusion] Bird damage on crops and fruits is related to food security, so we must pay attention to it. Finally, we discussed the measures to repel birds, including biological control, chemical expulsion, and physical intimidation (See pictures). In fact, to prevent bird damage effectively and harmlessly during the bird repellent is also a way to protect the birds.
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