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马鸣,蒋可威,梅宇,王文娟,Graham Martin,李军伟,陈雨萧,王述潮,吴道宁.2021.灰鹤在迁徙途中撞击高压线 伤亡分析与视觉盲区初探.动物学杂志,56(5):648-654.
灰鹤在迁徙途中撞击高压线 伤亡分析与视觉盲区初探
Wire Collision of the Common Cranes during Their Migration at Urumqi with Preliminary Analysis of Their Blind Area of Vision
投稿时间:2021-04-06  修订日期:2021-07-04
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202105002
中文关键词:  灰鹤  鸟撞电网  伤亡率  迁徙  视野与盲区  乌鲁木齐
英文关键词:Eurasian  crane, death  rate, migration, collision  on State  Grid, blind  area, Urumqi
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No. 31572292,31272291,30970340)和生态环境部生物多样性保护重大工程专项
作者单位E-mail
马鸣 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 乌鲁木齐 maming@ms.xjb.ac.cn 
蒋可威 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 乌鲁木齐 maming3211@yahoo.com 
梅宇 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 乌鲁木齐 maming3211@sina.com 
王文娟 南昌大学生命科学研究院流域生态学研究所 南昌 maming3211@tom.com 
Graham Martin 英国伯明翰大学生物科学院 B TT UK G.R.Martin@bham.ac.uk 
李军伟 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 乌鲁木齐 lijunwei@ms.xjb.ac.cn 
陈雨萧 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 乌鲁木齐 chenyuxiao@ms.xjb.ac.cn 
王述潮 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 乌鲁木齐 wangshuchao@ms.xjb.ac.cn 
吴道宁 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 乌鲁木齐 wudaoning@ms.xjb.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      广布于欧亚大陆的灰鹤(Grus grus)又叫普通鹤、欧亚鹤。依据2019-2021年在乌鲁木齐郊区连续三年搜集灰鹤迁徙期遭遇高压线(220kv)拦截遇难的数据,简单介绍伤亡案例的特点。可能是因为灰鹤前端有一个视觉盲区,约49只灰鹤碰撞了高压线。之前,媒体报道的伤亡数更多,每千只伤亡率达5.4%。伤亡者多是1龄以上4龄以内的亚成鸟(占94%),未见1龄内幼鸟。现场解剖,伤亡者的断翅率最高,达到53%;腿被撞折的比率也很高,达51%;腹部或背部擦伤占24%;头或颈部碰伤约为14%。因为碰挂后落地(≥30m架空线),造成二次受伤,结果有41%的灰鹤身体是多处受伤。最后,对视野盲区进行了深入分析,并介绍和推荐几种行之有效的解决办法。
英文摘要:
      Common crane (Grus grus), also known as the Eurasian crane, is widely distributed in China. From 2019 to 2021, some cranes were in trouble when they stopped in the suburbs of Urumqi and were running into 220 kV transmission lines. Probably because there was a blind area in the front of crane, about 49 cranes fell after hitting the high-voltage line. And more injuries and deaths were reported by the local media previously, with a casualty rate of 5.4% per 1000 cranes. Cornfields and wetlands near the power line are the places where the cranes like to go, but the death toll in previous years was not so much. We examined the cranes in the field, all of which were sub-adults (more than 94% is 2-4 years old; such as their body feathers were lighter and the top of the head without red spot). According to observations, thousands of adult Common cranes have passed through this area in mid-March and late, with no casualties. Why we didn"t find the dead bodies of the one-year-old cranes then? Maybe they were led by experienced parents at that time. Examination of the injured body parts showed that the Common crane had the highest rate of broken wings, reaching 53%; the rate of leg fracture was also high, up to 51%; abdominal or back abrasions accounted for 24%; head or neck bruises were about 14%; about 41% of the injured cranes were with multiple injuries. Finally, we analyze the blind area of vision, and try to discuss, introduce and recommend several effective solutions. 修改:Common cranes (Grus grus), are widely distributed in China. Some of the population pass through the area around Urumqi (Western China) during their annual migrations. A number of these birds collide with power lines (220 kV transmission). Between 2019 and 2021 systematic surveys were conducted and at least 49 cranes were recorded killed because of hitting power lines. Injuries and deaths more than this number have been casually reported and we estimate the casualty rate to be about 5.4 % of all cranes visiting the area (Table 1). This death toll may be increasing. Cornfields and wetlands near power lines are the habitats frequented by the cranes. We examined cranes which had apparently collided with power lines, all were sub-adults (more than 94 % were 2-4 years old birds; body feathers were lighter than in fully mature adults and the top of the head was without the red marking). According to observations, thousands of adult Common cranes pass through this area in mid-March and later, but apparently there are no casualties. Why did we not find the dead bodies of one-year-old cranes? We suggest that they were led by experienced parents at that time. Examination of the injured body parts showed a high rate of broken wings, (53 %) and broken legs (51 %); abdominal or back abrasions were found on 24 % of birds, and head or neck bruises on about 14 %. About 41 % of the injured cranes had multiple injuries (Table 1). Why do these birds collide with power lines? Part of the explanation may lie in the frontal area of blind vision which projects in the direction of travel when a flying crane pitches its head forward to look down (Fig. 1c), perhaps searching for other cranes on the ground or suitable feeding areas. We discuss and recommend several effective solutions that should increase power line visibility and reduce crane collisions and deaths.
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