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杨天友,姚杰,杨传东.2021.贵州洋溪省级自然保护区翼手类 物种多样性调查.动物学杂志,56(6):819-825.
贵州洋溪省级自然保护区翼手类 物种多样性调查
Species Diversity of Bat in Yangxi Provincial Nature Reserve, Guizhou Province
投稿时间:2021-02-28  修订日期:2021-10-27
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202106003
中文关键词:  翼手类  洋溪自然保护区  物种多样性  保护
英文关键词:Chiroptera  Yangxi Nature Reserve  Species diversity  Conservation
基金项目:贵州省重点实验室项目(黔科合平台人才[2020]2003号),铜仁市科技局科技支撑计划项目(铜市科研[2020]128号),铜仁学院学科建设与研究生教育专项项目(trxkm[2018]12号),贵州省普通高等学校青年科技人才成长项目(黔教合KY字[2019]170),贵州省科技厅联合基金项目(黔科合LH[2014]7374号)
作者单位E-mail
杨天友 铜仁学院农林工程与规划学院 铜仁 554300 铜仁学院贵州省梵净山地区生物多样性保护与利用重点实验室 铜仁 554300 yangtianyou2006@126.com 
姚杰 铜仁学院农林工程与规划学院 铜仁 554300 1254360824@qq.com 
杨传东 铜仁学院贵州省梵净山地区生物多样性保护与利用重点实验室 铜仁 554300 yangchuandong@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      2018年7月至2021年2月,采用栖息地调查法和网捕法对贵州洋溪省级自然保护区翼手目动物物种多样性及保护现状进行了调查。共记录到翼手目动物3科6属13种,包括蝙蝠科5种,菊头蝠科5种,蹄蝠科3种。按照中国动物地理区划,以东洋界种类为主,共有11种,另有2种为广布种。列入《中国生物多样性红色名录:哺乳动物》近危级(NT)7种、无危级(LC)物种6种;列入IUCN物种红色名录近危(NT)级1种,无危级(LC)12种。此次在洋溪自然保护区共调查了27个洞穴,其中20个洞穴有蝙蝠栖息。大蹄蝠(Hipposideros armiger)分布最广,在10个洞穴有分布;其次是皮氏菊头蝠(Rhinolophus pearsonii),在8个洞穴发现;小菊头蝠(R. pusillus)在7个洞穴有分布。对蝙蝠栖息洞穴的干扰情况进行调查发现,超过一半(55%,n = 20)的洞穴存在人类干扰活动,如村民进洞游玩、在洞内饲养家畜、驱赶蝙蝠、进行祭祀活动以及破坏洞口等。建议对村民在洞内养殖家畜、游玩、驱赶蝙蝠等行为加以限制,并通过引导村民文明祭祀、对被封洞口进行疏通、对古老建筑进行修缮等方式,加强对该地区蝙蝠的保护。同时还建议对该保护区的蝙蝠及其栖息地进行长期监测。
英文摘要:
      From July 2018 to February 2021, we conducted a survey on the bats diversity and conservation status in Yangxi Provincial Nature Reserve using roost surveying and mist-net catching method. We totally identified 13 species representing to six genera in three families (Table 1). It includes five species of Vespertilionidae, five species of Rhinolophidae and three species of Hipposideridae. Six of 13 species including Rhinolophus rex, Aselliscus stoliczkanus, Hipposideros pratti, Myotis altarium, Myotis chinensis, Pipistrellus abramus were found for the first time in this reserve (Table 1). According to the animal geographical regions of China, 11 species belong to the Oriental Realm, and two species are considered to be widespread. Six species are evaluated as Near Threatened (NT), seven as Least Concern (LC) based on China’s Red list of biodiversity(vertebrates) while only one species as Near Threatened (NT) and 12 species as Least Concern (LC) based on IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (Table 1). Bats dwell in 20 of 27 surveyed caves. Hipposideros armiger occurred in ten caves and was most widely found. And the following is Rhinolophus pearsonii in 8 caves and R. pusillus in 7 caves (Table 2). Over half of 20 dwellings (55%, Table 2) were disturbed by human activities (e.g., Cave visiting, bats chasing, cave used for livestock, cave sacrifice, destruction of entrance to a cave) which becomes dominant threatening factors for the survival of bats at this area. The strategies as below are suggested to adopt for further species conservation: managing cave visiting by human and livestock (including bat chasing); a conservation education project to better manage cave sacrifice; unblocking the entrance to the cave; and strengthening the repair management for traditional houses of local residents. We also recommend that the long-term survey for bats biodiversity in this reserve should be conducted to understand a dynamic change of species in the future.
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