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刘洺源,张叶军,陈乃菲,马浩楠,邹伟.2021.入侵种小管福寿螺对本土物种 梨形环棱螺的生态挤压作用.动物学杂志,56(5):663-673.
入侵种小管福寿螺对本土物种 梨形环棱螺的生态挤压作用
Ecological Squeezing Effect of the Invasive Species Pomacea canaliculata on the Indigenous Species Bellamya purificata
投稿时间:2020-12-15  修订日期:2021-07-01
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202105004
中文关键词:  小管福寿螺  梨形环棱螺  入侵机制  生态影响  生理胁迫
英文关键词:Pomacea canaliculata  Bellamya purificata  Invasion mechanism  Ecological impact  Physiological stress
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
刘洺源 辽宁省生物技术与分子药物研发重点实验室 大连 116081辽宁师范大学生命科学学院 大连 116081 630398422@qq.com 
张叶军 辽宁省生物技术与分子药物研发重点实验室 大连 116081辽宁师范大学生命科学学院 大连 116081 yejunzhang2013@126.com 
陈乃菲 辽宁省生物技术与分子药物研发重点实验室 大连 116081辽宁师范大学生命科学学院 大连 116081 13795132869@163.com 
马浩楠 辽宁师范大学生命科学学院 大连 116081 haojue0114@163.com 
邹伟 辽宁省生物技术与分子药物研发重点实验室 大连 116081辽宁师范大学生命科学学院 大连 116081 weizou60@126.com 
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中文摘要:
      在世界范围内,物种入侵正成为一个影响经济发展、公众健康的重大生态事件。为了探究入侵物种小管福寿螺(Pomacea canaliculata)对本土近生态位物种的生态挤压作用,选择了梨形环棱螺(Bellamya purificata)作为受试动物,设置直接生态竞争实验和间接分泌物胁迫实验两类实验。直接生态竞争实验中两种螺直接竞争生存资源,而间接分泌物胁迫实验中则观测两种受试螺分泌物对彼此与自身种群的影响。为了模拟野外不同水体的竞争情况,设置了两种密度,即每组共计6只受试螺(低密度组)及每组共计12只受试螺(高密度组),在两种密度下设两种螺不同比例的个体组合。结果显示,两类实验中,小管福寿螺的体重相对变化与生存率都优于梨形环棱螺。直接竞争实验小管福寿螺体重相对变化率显著优于梨形环棱螺(P < 0.05),但二者生存率无显著差异;低密度组中,福寿螺与梨形环棱螺的体重相对变化及生存率均无显著差异,而高密度组中,当梨形环棱螺个体数极多时(8只),其体重相对变化率会显著差于小管福寿螺(P < 0.05);当梨形环棱螺个体数少时(4只),其体重相对变化率与小管福寿螺无明显差异,但生存率会显著低于小管福寿螺(P < 0.05)。间接分泌物干扰实验中,小管福寿螺的体重相对变化率极显著优于梨形环棱螺(P < 0.01),且其生存率高于梨形环棱螺;在低密度组中,高比例(4只)的小管福寿螺生存率显著高于高比例(4只)的梨形环棱螺(P < 0.05);而在高密度组中,高比例(8只)的梨形环棱螺在28 d内全部死亡,由于对照组中即使是高密度的梨形环棱螺也拥有高生存率,说明这种效应不是梨形环棱螺本身所导致的,而是小管福寿螺的间接分泌物胁迫导致了梨形环棱螺的大量死亡。以上结果充分表明,小管福寿螺的间接分泌物干扰效应比直接生态挤压作用具有更严重的生态威胁性,且小管福寿螺的种内竞争调节能力优于梨形环棱螺,这可能是小管福寿螺作为入侵物种的一种有效生活史策略。
英文摘要:
      Species invasion is becoming a major ecological event affecting economic development and public health in the world. In order to explore the ecological squeeze effect of the malignant aquatic invasive species Pomacea canaliculata to the native near-niche species, the Bellamya purificata was selected as the test animals. Two sets of experiments were conducted. In the direct ecological competition experiment, P. canaliculata directly competed with B. purificata for the survival resources, while in the indirect endocrine interference experiment, the effects of secretions of the two kinds of snails on each other were observed. In order to simulate the competition of different water bodies in the field, two densities of the two kinds of snails were set, namely, 6 snails in each group (low density group) and 12 snails in each group (high density group). Different proportion of individual combinations of the two kinds of snails were set under two densities. In the low density group, the ratio of the number of P. canaliculata to B. purificata is 2︰4, 3︰3, 4︰2, while in the high density group, the ratio of the number of P. canaliculata to B. purificata is 4︰8, 6︰6, 8︰4. The data was analyzed using Excel and Spss17.0, and the significance test was analyzed using T-test. The results showed that no matter which group of experiments, the relative change rate of weight and the survival rate of P. canaliculata were better than those of B. purificata (Fig. 2, Fig. 5). In the direct competition experiment, the relative change rate of weight of P. canaliculata was significantly better than that of B. purificata (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference in the survival rate (Fig. 3). In the low-density group, there was no significant difference in the relative change rate of weight and survival rate of the two kinds of snails; while in the high-density group, the relative change rate of weight of B. purificata was significantly worse than that of P. canaliculata (P < 0.05) when the number of B. purificata was extremely large (8), but the relative change rate of weight of B. purificata was not significantly different from that of P. canaliculata, but the survival rate of B. purificata would be significantly lower than that of P. canaliculata (P < 0.05) when the number of B. purificata was small (4) (Fig. 3). In the indirect secretion interference experiment, the relative change rate of weight of P. canaliculata was significantly better than that of B. purificata (P < 0.01), and its survival rate was higher than that of B. purificata (Fig. 4). In the low-density group, the survival rate of P. canaliculata of the high number (4) was significantly higher than that of B. purificata of the high number (4) (P < 0.05); while in the high-density group, B. purificata of the high number (8) all died within 28 days. Since the survival rate of B. purificata was high even in the high-density in the control group, which indicated that this effect was not caused by B. purificata itself, but caused by the indirect secretion stress of P. canaliculata. This life strategy of P. canaliculata caused a large number of deaths of B. purificata (Fig. 5). The above results fully indicated that the indirect secretion interference effect of P. canaliculata had a more serious ecological threat than the direct ecological squeeze effect, and the regulation ability of intraspecific competition of P. canaliculata was better than that of B. purificata, which may be an effective life history strategy for P. canaliculata as an invasive species.
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