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高如意,贾茹,孔德生,谢文燕,茹文东,吉志红,陆军,张国钢.2021.环境温度对大天鹅越冬行为和活动区的影响.动物学杂志,56(5):655-662.
环境温度对大天鹅越冬行为和活动区的影响
Effect of Environmental Temperature on the Wintering Behaviors and Home Range of Whooper Swans (Cygnus cygnus)
投稿时间:2020-12-14  修订日期:2021-08-31
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202105003
中文关键词:  大天鹅  越冬行为  活动区  环境温度  三门峡湿地
英文关键词:Whooper swan  Wintering behaviors  Home range  Environmental temperature  Sanmenxia Wetland
基金项目:遥感科学国家重点实验室开放基金项目(No. OFSLRSS201925),国家林业和草原局项目(No. 213023721203)
作者单位E-mail
高如意 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所全国鸟类环志中心国家林业和草原局森林保护学重点实验室 北京 100091 三门峡市天鹅湖国家城市湿地公园管理处 三门峡 472000 13603401731@163.com 
贾茹 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所全国鸟类环志中心国家林业和草原局森林保护学重点实验室 北京 100091 2353120380@qq.com 
孔德生 三门峡市天鹅湖国家城市湿地公园管理处 三门峡 47200 568104556@qq.com 
谢文燕 三门峡市天鹅湖国家城市湿地公园管理处 三门峡 47200 1870358663@qq.com 
茹文东 三门峡市天鹅湖国家城市湿地公园管理处 三门峡 47200 smxrwd@126.com 
吉志红 河南省三门峡市气象局 三门峡 472000 smxjzh0775@163.com 
陆军 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所全国鸟类环志中心国家林业和草原局森林保护学重点实验室 北京 100091 lujunmail@vip.sina.com 
张国钢 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所全国鸟类环志中心国家林业和草原局森林保护学重点实验室 北京 100091 zm7672@caf.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      环境温度变化通过影响鸟类的行为进而使其活动区也发生变化,探讨三者之间的关联性有助于理解鸟类是如何通过行为调整以适应周围环境的变化,来满足自身的生理需求。本研究通过卫星跟踪的方法获得了在河南三门峡湿地越冬的31只大天鹅(Cygnus cygnus)详细位点数据,在ArcGIS和R语言中采用核密度估计法计算大天鹅的活动区面积,在SPSS中采用Spearman分析平均温度与活动区面积的相关性;并利用瞬时扫描法获得大天鹅越冬行为观察数据,采用非参数Kruskal Wallis检验对大天鹅行为的差异性进行分析,探讨了环境温度与大天鹅越冬行为和活动区三者之间相互作用的模式。研究表明,从越冬初期至后期,随着环境温度的先下降后升高,大天鹅的取食、运动、静息等主要行为发生了较大的变化,静息和取食行为先增加后减少,运动行为则先减少后增加。越冬不同时期的核心区和活动区面积与温度呈显著性正相关。大天鹅在不同时段的活动区面积大小整体上均呈现出先减少后增加的趋势。随着环境温度的变化,大天鹅的越冬行为也随之发生了调整,进而使活动区面积发生改变,主要体现在越冬初期大天鹅通过增加活动区面积及时补充能量增加体能,越冬中期减少活动保持能量需求,越冬后期增加盘旋飞行使得活动区面积增大等。大天鹅这一系列行为和活动区的调整都是为了更好地满足越冬不同时期的生理需求。
英文摘要:
      Changes in environmental temperature may affect the wintering behaviors of birds and alter their home range sizes. It is important to understand how these three factors interact to influence the ability of birds to meet their physiological needs. In this paper, the detailed data of locations of 31 whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) wintering in Sanmenxia Wetland of Henan Province were obtained by satellite tracking, and we used kernel density estimation to calculate the home range size of whooper swans by ArcGIS and R, Spearman correlation was used to determinate the relationship between mean temperature and home range size by SPSS, and the behavior observation data of swans were obtained by instantaneous scanning method, the Kruskal Wallis test was used to analyze the significant difference of behavioral patterns. According to the daily average temperature of our study area, the whole winter period was divided into three periods (Fig. 1). The results showed that there were noticeable differences in the wintering behaviors of the swans, including feeding, locomotion and resting form the early to late winter periods, related to the decreasing and increasing environmental temperature (Table 1). As winter behaviors changed, the home range sizes of the swans also altered (Table 2). The sizes of core area and whole home range in different winter periods were positively correlated with temperatures. Additionally, home range sizes at different time intervals changed greatly with the change in temperatures (Fig. 2). In the early winter, the variation in the behaviors of the swans mainly reflected the need to supplement energy to increase physical fitness and home range sizes increased. In the mid-winter period, movement was reduced to maintain energy and the home range sizes decreased. In the late winter, the home range sizes increased to allow for greater circling flights and foraging to improve migration ability. In conclusion, this study found that changes were made by swans to their wintering behaviors and home range sizes to meet their physiological demands during different winter periods.
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