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陈明真,和育超,陈尧,李延鹏,黄志旁,崔亮伟,肖文.2021.云岭保护区拉沙山滇金丝猴断奶与照料行为.动物学杂志,56(3):321-329.
云岭保护区拉沙山滇金丝猴断奶与照料行为
Weaning Behavior and Parental Care of Black Snub-nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha, Yunling Reserve
投稿时间:2020-07-22  修订日期:2021-05-24
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202103001
中文关键词:  滇金丝猴  断奶行为  父母照料  拉沙山
英文关键词:Rhinopithecus bieti  Weaning behavior  Parental care  Mt. Lasha
基金项目:第二次青藏高原综合科学考察项目(No. 2019QZKK0402),国家自然科学基金项目(No. 31860164,31860168,31772474,32070456),物种多样性类遗产地监测保护示范项目(No. 2016YFC0503304),云南省高层次人才培养支持计划(No. YNWR-CYJS- 2018-052),生态环境部“生物多样性调查、观测评估”项目(No. 2019-2-10)
作者单位E-mail
陈明真 西南林业大学 云南省高校极小种群野生动物保育重点实验室 昆明 650224大理大学东喜玛拉雅研究院 大理 671003 chenmzh@eastern-himalaya.cn 
和育超 云岭省级自然保护区管护局 怒江 671400中国三江并流区域生物多样性协同创新中心 大理 671003 352301156@qq.com 
陈尧 云岭省级自然保护区管护局 怒江 671400 232905813@qq.com 
李延鹏 大理大学东喜玛拉雅研究院 大理 671003中国三江并流区域生物多样性协同创新中心 大理 671003大理大学 三江并流区域生物多样性保护与利用云南省创新团队 大理 671003国际生物多样性与灵长类保护中心 大理 671003 liyp@eastern-himalaya.cn 
黄志旁 大理大学东喜玛拉雅研究院 大理 671003中国三江并流区域生物多样性协同创新中心 大理 671003大理大学 三江并流区域生物多样性保护与利用云南省创新团队 大理 671003国际生物多样性与灵长类保护中心 大理 671003 huangzp@eastern-himalaya.cn 
崔亮伟 西南林业大学 云南省高校极小种群野生动物保育重点实验室 昆明 650224中国三江并流区域生物多样性协同创新中心 大理 671003 cuilw@eastern-himalaya.cn 
肖文 大理大学东喜玛拉雅研究院 大理 671003中国三江并流区域生物多样性协同创新中心 大理 671003大理大学 三江并流区域生物多样性保护与利用云南省创新团队 大理 671003国际生物多样性与灵长类保护中心 大理 671003 xiaow@eastern-himalaya.cn 
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中文摘要:
      灵长类婴幼儿断奶是个体生命的重要过程,即标志着婴幼猴能独立获取营养,也体现雌性繁殖调控和特定环境下物种断奶行为的适应机制。为了解滇金丝猴(Rhinopithecus bieti)婴幼猴断奶过程及影响因素,于2008年5月至2010年4月,以云岭省级自然保护区拉沙山滇金丝猴种群为研究对象,采用10 min间隔的瞬时扫描取样法,收集了拉沙山猴群1 ~ 26月龄婴幼猴的活动时间分配,及成年个体对婴幼猴的照料(携带和空间距离)数据,并依据婴幼猴行为发育和成年个体照料来判定断奶时间节点。活动时间分配中,婴幼猴1 ~ 12月龄期间,成年雌性身体接触照料平均时间为49.59%(携带为47.07%),婴幼猴取食时间为8.45%,给其他个体理毛时间为0.09%;13 ~ 17月龄,成年雌性接触照料婴幼猴时间为19.62%(携带为4.74%),而婴幼猴取食时间为22.06%,给其他个体理毛时间为0.96%;18 ~ 26月龄,成年雌性接触照料婴幼猴时间为17.18%(携带为0.82%),而婴幼猴取食时间为38.48%,给其他个体理毛时间为1.39%。基于婴幼猴行为发育和成年雌性照料减少判断婴幼猴自13月龄开始断奶,17月龄结束;断奶期处于主要食物丰富度和可获得性高的季节,利于提高婴幼猴成活率和成年雌性身体恢复。因此,拉沙山滇金丝猴婴幼猴断奶主要受成年雌性照料与食物可获得性的调控。
英文摘要:
      The process of weaning in primates means that infants start acquiring nutrition independently, it also reflects the regulation of female reproduction and the adaptive mechanism of weaning behavior under specific environmental conditions. To understand the weaning process and their influencing factors in Black Snub-nosed Monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti) infants, we observed a group of infants aged 1 to 26 months living in Mt. Lasha, within Yunling Provicial Nature Reserve, Lanping, Yunnan, China, from May 2008 to April 2010. Using the 10-minutes scan sampling method, we analyzed the behavioral development of the infants monkeys as indicated by their activity time distribution and parental care (body contact and distance), and determined the weaning process pattern. During the first 12 months of age, infants were in physical contact with adult females for almost half of the daytime (49.59%), mostly being carried (47.07%). The feeding time of was 8.45%, and the grooming time for other individuals was 0.09%. Between 13 to 17 months of age, the average time of parental care (physical contact) by adult females decreased to 19.62% (carrying 4.74%), while feeding time more than doubled (22.06%), and grooming time for other individuals increased slightly (0.96%). Between 18 to 26 months, infants spent less time in direct contact with adult females (17.18%, carrying 0.82%), while feeding and grooming with other individuals kept increasing (38.48% and 1.39%, respectively). Based on behavioral development of infants and adult females’ care decreased, we determined that the weaning process of R. bieti infants happened between their 13th and 17th months of age. This period corresponded with the season where high-quality food was available, favorizing the adaptation and survival of the newly independent infants, as well as boosting the recovery of mothers to support the next generation. These findings suggest that the weaning of R. bieti infants is mainly regulated by adult females’ care and food availability.
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