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李林芝,陈浒,王存璐,张红梅,陈静,郭城,魏强.2020.贵州疣螈繁殖生态.动物学杂志,55(3):306-316.
贵州疣螈繁殖生态
Reproductive Ecology of Tylototriton kweichowensis in Guizhou
投稿时间:2019-12-11  修订日期:2020-04-28
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202003004
中文关键词:  贵州疣螈  栖息地  繁殖生态  保护
英文关键词:Tylotoriton kweichowensis  Habitat  Reproductive ecology  Protection
基金项目:国家“十三五”重点研发计划课题(No. 2016YFC0502601)
作者单位E-mail
李林芝 贵州师范大学喀斯特研究院国家喀斯特石漠化防治工程技术研究中心 贵阳 550001 877519292@qq.com 
陈浒 贵州师范大学喀斯特研究院国家喀斯特石漠化防治工程技术研究中心 贵阳 550001 gy_chenhu@163.com 
王存璐 贵州师范大学喀斯特研究院国家喀斯特石漠化防治工程技术研究中心 贵阳 550001 273750473@qq.com 
张红梅 贵州师范大学喀斯特研究院国家喀斯特石漠化防治工程技术研究中心 贵阳 550001 gy_chenhu@163.com 
陈静 贵州师范大学喀斯特研究院国家喀斯特石漠化防治工程技术研究中心 贵阳 550001 gy_chenhu@163.com 
郭城 贵州师范大学喀斯特研究院国家喀斯特石漠化防治工程技术研究中心 贵阳 550001 gy_chenhu@163.com 
魏强 贵州师范大学喀斯特研究院国家喀斯特石漠化防治工程技术研究中心 贵阳 550001 gy_chenhu@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      贵州疣螈(Tylototriton kweichowensis)为中国特有种,国家Ⅱ级重点保护野生动物,对生境变化具有重要指示意义。2018年9月至2019年10月,在贵州省毕节市撒拉溪石漠化综合治理示范区,对贵州疣螈栖息地、形态特征、繁殖行为进行了野外观测。调查显示,贵州疣螈栖息于山塘、山泉、蓄水池、临时性积水坑(塘)等水域,个体全长、尾长和体重雌螈均显著高于雄螈。贵州疣螈于4月18日雷雨天气后破眠外出活动,繁殖始于4月29日,最晚见于8月8日,高峰期为5至6月;繁殖期贵州疣螈的性比总体上偏雄,但在产卵期性比偏雌;雌、雄螈抱对时间几分钟到40 min不等;抱对结束后开始排精、纳精;产卵活动在纳精后的1 ~ 2 d进行,卵产于繁殖场水底、草或石头上;卵的孵化率为55%,平均孵化期8 d,幼体完成变态发育需130 d。研究表明,贵州疣螈的繁殖与发育受降雨、水量、温度变化的影响较大,且繁殖场所相对较为固定,容易受到人类活动的干扰。因此,在石漠化治理和生态修复时注重贵州疣螈的栖息地保护,必要时应人工新建稳固繁殖场,保障其生态繁衍。
英文摘要:
      Tylototriton kweichowensis is an endemic species in China and was listed in Grade Ⅱ of National protected wildlife. It has important guiding significance for environmental changes. From September 2018 to October 2019, using field observations were made on the habitats, morphological characteristics, and reproductive behavior of T. kweichowensis in the demonstration area for comprehensive management of rocky desertification in Salaxi, Bijie City, Guizhou Province. The results show that, T. kweichowensis lives in mountain ponds, springs, reservoirs, and temporary puddles. As shown in Table 1, the total length, tail length and weight of females are higher than that of males. T. kweichowensis went out after a thunderstorm on April 18. The species began to breed on April 29, and finished their breeding at the latest on August the reproductive peak was May-June. As shown in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4, the operational sex ratio of T. kweichowensis in breeding period is bias to male, but it is more female in spawn periods temprorally; female and male amplectant time ranges from a few minutes to 40 minutes. After the end of the female and male amplectant, they start to spermatophore transportation. Egg-laying behavior is carried out in 1﹣2 d after, and the eggs are produced on the bottom of the breeding ground, grass or stone. The hatching rate of eggs is 55%, the average hatching time is 8 d, and the larvae can complete metamorphosis at 130 d. These studies have shown that, the reproduction and development of T. kweichowensis are greatly affected by changes in rainfall, water volume, temperature, and the breeding habitat are relatively fixed and more susceptible to human activities. Therefore, we should pay attention to the habitats protection of T. kweichowensis in the process of rocky desertification control and ecological restoration. If necessary, we should build a stable breeding habitats manually to ensure its ecological reproduction.
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