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王可心,赵雨恬,蒋怡锦,戴颖玉,胡超超,屈彦福.2020.有鳞目动物鳞片表面超微结构的适应性进化.动物学杂志,55(2):113-133.
有鳞目动物鳞片表面超微结构的适应性进化
Adaptive Evolution of Scales from Lizards to Snakes the Ultrastructure of the Surface of Squamate Scales
投稿时间:2019-10-23  修订日期:2020-03-20
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202002001
中文关键词:  鳞片  微皮纹  感受器  祖先重建  有鳞目
英文关键词:Scale  Microornamentation  Scale sensilla  Ancestral reconstruction  Squamate
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No. 31770443,31200283)和江苏省自然科学基金项目(No. BK20161556)
作者单位E-mail
王可心 南京师范大学生命科学学院 南京 210023 W843580161@163.com 
赵雨恬 南京师范大学生命科学学院 南京 210023 erinnn0719@163.com 
蒋怡锦 南京师范大学生命科学学院 南京 210023 nihao_jyj@163.com 
戴颖玉 南京师范大学生命科学学院 南京 210023 1240993458@qq.com 
胡超超 南京师范大学生命科学学院 南京 210023南京师范大学分析测试中心 南京 210023 huweichen@126.com 
屈彦福 南京师范大学生命科学学院 南京 210023 imwx-q@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      爬行动物鳞片的微结构是对环境的一种适应。本研究运用扫描电子显微镜观察了北草蜥(Takydromus septentrionalis)、脆蛇蜥(Dopasia harti)和王锦蛇(Elaphe carinata)头部、背部和腹部鳞片的微皮纹结构及感受器特征。结果表明,3个物种的微皮纹和感受器存在种间差异。北草蜥和王锦蛇背部及腹部微皮纹均为狭长带状,脆蛇蜥为不规则多边形。北草蜥和王锦蛇颔片上有感受器,北草蜥无。脆蛇蜥腹部微皮纹上无小齿状凸起,北草蜥和王锦蛇有,与北草蜥相比王锦蛇的小齿状凸起更宽更长。王锦蛇的眼部微皮纹为向上竖起的脊,而其他部位的鳞片为具有小齿状凸起的狭长带状结构。本研究共收集整理17科99种的背鳞微皮纹数据和8科25种的感受器数据,对微皮纹特征和感受器形态进行祖先重建发现,狭长带状背鳞微皮纹主要存在于蜥蜴科(Lacertidae)、游蛇科(Colubridae)和石龙子科(Scincidae)中,而鬛蜥科(Agamidae)、蛇蜥科(Anguidae)、蟒蛇科(Boidae)以及蝰蛇科(Viperidae)的大多为多边形;较原始的感受器形态为无感觉毛的透镜状,这一结构在有鳞目动物进化中发生多次演化。本研究发现蛇蜥的鳞片表面微结构更接近于蛇类动物。因此,有鳞类动物鳞片微皮纹特征和皮肤感受器的形态是对其所处环境多重压力的优化选择。
英文摘要:
      Scales in squamate reptiles are the main features that distinguish them from the other amniotes. The ultrastructure of scales in squamate reptiles was an adaptation to the local environment. We used scanning electron microscope to observe the microornamentation and scale sensilla on heads, middle dorsal and middle ventral parts of Takydromus septentrionalis, Dopasia harti and Elaphe carinata. Our results showed that there were interspecies and intraspecific differences in the microornamentation and scale sensilla of the examined species: 1) oberhautchen of T. septentrionalis and E. carinata was consisted of ?at and strap-shaped cells, but oberhautchen of O. harti was formed by polygonal cells; 2) the lenticular scale sensilla existed on the chin-shields of O. harti and E. carinata, while there was no lenticular scale sensilla on the chin-shields of T. septentrionalis; 3) the posterior margin denticulations were present on the oberhautchen of T. septentrionalis and E. carinata, however, the denticulations of E. carinata were wider and longer than in T. septentrionalis; 4) the oberhautchen cells appeared erect ridge on circumocular scales, while flat and strap-shaped cells were found on the scales of other parts in E. carinata. Simultaneously, a total of 17 families and 99 species of dorsal scale microornamentation data and 8 families and 25 species of receptor data were collected and ancestral reconstructions were performed on terrestrial squamate microornamentation and scale sensilla. The results showed that the narrow strap-shaped cells mainly existed in the Lacertide, Colubridae and Scincidae, while the polygonal cells existed in the Agamidae, Anguidae, Boidae and Viperidae. The ancestral morphology of scale sensilla was lenticular-like and lenticular, furthermore, the lenticular structure has evolved repeatedly. In addition, we speculated that the microornamentations and scale sensilla of the O. harti were closer to those snakes. Therefore, it was deduced that the morphological features of the microornamentations and scale sensillum of squamates contributed to their ecological adaptation to preferential microhabitats.
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