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罗宏德,万丽霞,马映荣,杨巨才,色拥军,贾阳阳.2020.甘肃盐池湾斑头雁巢址选择.动物学杂志,55(3):277-288.
甘肃盐池湾斑头雁巢址选择
Nest-site Selection of Bar-headed Goose (Anser indicus) in Yanchi Bay, Gansu
投稿时间:2019-09-29  修订日期:2020-04-30
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202003001
中文关键词:  斑头雁  巢址选择  样方调查  主成分分析
英文关键词:Anser indicus  Nest-site selection  Quadrat investigation  Principal component analysis
基金项目:甘肃肃北县鸟类调查项目(No. 5002-2005)
作者单位E-mail
罗宏德 西北师范大学生命科学学院 兰州 730070 1271779513@qq.com 
万丽霞 西北师范大学生命科学学院 兰州 730070 wanlx@163.com 
马映荣 西北师范大学生命科学学院 兰州 730070 myr2157@163.com 
杨巨才 甘肃盐池湾国家级自然保护区管理局 酒泉 735000 1358883917@qq.com 
色拥军 甘肃盐池湾国家级自然保护区管理局 酒泉 735000 1437049280@qq.com 
贾阳阳 西北师范大学生命科学学院 兰州 730070 893361906@qq.com 
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中文摘要:
      2019年4至6月,采用定点观察法和样方法研究甘肃盐池湾国家级自然保护区斑头雁(Anser indicus)巢址选择。研究期间共发现斑头雁巢332个,斑头雁在繁殖期有3种营巢生境,即浅水沼泽、湖心小岛以及山崖,其巢址类型有草垛巢、地面巢和山崖裸岩巢3种。浅水沼泽、湖心小岛以及山崖3种营巢生境中窝卵数分别为(4.7 ± 2.7)枚(n = 204)、(4.2 ± 1.9)枚(n = 108)及(3.1 ± 0.6)枚(n = 20),孵化成功率分别为48.65%(n = 199)、45.27%(n = 148)及24.00%(n = 25),繁殖成功率分别为66.67%(n = 42)、74.28%(n = 35)及36.36%(n = 11)。主成分分析显示,影响浅水沼泽生境中斑头雁巢址选择的主要环境因素依次为水源因素、隐蔽因素、干扰因素和食物因素;影响湖心小岛生境中斑头雁巢址选择的主要环境因素依次为隐蔽因素、食物因素、干扰因素;影响山崖生境中斑头雁巢址选择的主要环境因素依次为地形因素、食物及水源因素、干扰因素。本研究表明,斑头雁在不同营巢生境中,巢址选择的最主要环境因素并不相同,主要依赖生境特征及周围环境因素特征。
英文摘要:
      From April to June 2019, the fixed-point observation method and sample method were used to investigate the nest-site selection of Bar-headed Goose (Anser indicus) in the Yanchi Bay National Nature Reserve of Gansu Province. A total of 332 Bar-headed Goose nests were found, including three types of nest sites: haystack nests, ground nests, and bare rock cliff nests (Fig. 2). All nests were distributed on haystacks in shallow water swamps, on islands in the lake, and on nearby cliffs (Fig. 1). The average densities of the bar-headed geese in the three nest habitats were 0.18 /m2 (n = 204), 0.59 /m2 (n = 108), and 0.06 /m2 (n = 20). Bar-headed Geese favored to choose a nest in a small island in the center of the lake, followed by shallow water swamps and cliffs (Table 1). The average clutch sizes of bar-headed geese in the three nesting habitats were 4.74 ± 2.68 (n = 204), 4.23 ± 1.94 (n = 108) and 3.13 ± 0.64 (n = 20), with the hatching success rates of 48.65% (n = 199), 45.27% (n = 148) and 24.00% (n = 25), and reproduction success rates of 66.67% (n = 42), 74.28% (n = 35) and 36.36% (n = 11) (Table 2). Independent sample t-test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for nest site quadrats and the same number of control quadrats in each camp nest habitat. We found that in shallow water marsh habitats, three indicators of haystack density, haystack cover and water depth exist. Very significant difference (P < 0.01), and there was significant difference in water area (P < 0.05). In the lake core island habitat, there are extremely significant differences in the six indicators of vegetation density, vegetation height, maximum vegetation height, vegetation coverage, bare land ratio, and hay ratio (P < 0.01); in the cliff habitat, the slope direction and distance There are extremely significant differences between the three indicators of grass beach distance and water distance (P < 0.01) (Table 3﹣5). The principal component analysis showed that the main environmental factors affecting the selection of nesting sites for bar-headed geese in shallow marsh habitats were: water source factor, hidden factor, disturbance factor, and food factor; the major environmental factors affecting nest site selection in the core island habitat of Huxin Island were: Hidden factors, food factors, interference factors; the main environmental factors affecting nest site selection in cliff habitats are: terrain factors, food and water sources factors, and interference factors (Table 6﹣8). Studies have shown that the main environmental factors of nest site selection are different in different nest habitats of Bar-headed Geese, which mainly depend on the characteristics of habitats and surrounding environmental factors.
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