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金欣,戴林森,陈巧凤,周轶慧,仇雁翎,马志军.2017.有机氯农药在大滨鹬和红腹滨鹬体内的富集程度.动物学杂志,52(1):1-10.
有机氯农药在大滨鹬和红腹滨鹬体内的富集程度
Contamination of Organochlorine Pesticides in Great Knots (Calidris tenuirostris) and Red Knots (C. canutus)
投稿时间:2016-05-25  修订日期:2016-12-15
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201701001
中文关键词:  有机氯农药  大滨鹬  红腹滨鹬  沉积量
英文关键词:Organochlorine pesticides  Great Knots, Calidris tenuirostris  Red Knots, C. canutus  Contamination
基金项目:国家重点基础研发计划课题(No. 2013CB430404),国家自然科学基金面上项目(No. 31572280);
作者单位E-mail
金欣 复旦大学生物多样性科学研究所生物多样性与生态工程教育部重点实验室长江河口湿地生态系统野外科学观测研究站 jin_xin13@fudan.edu.cn 
戴林森 复旦大学分析测试中心  
陈巧凤 同济大学长江水环境教育部重点实验室  
周轶慧 同济大学长江水环境教育部重点实验室  
仇雁翎 同济大学长江水环境教育部重点实验室  
马志军 复旦大学生物多样性科学研究所生物多样性与生态工程教育部重点实验室长江河口湿地生态系统野外科学观测研究站 zhijunm@fudan.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      为探讨东亚-澳大利西亚迁徙路线上的鸻鹬类体内有机氯农药的含量及来源,本研究以该迁徙路线上的大滨鹬(Calidris tenuirostris)和红腹滨鹬(C. canutus)为研究对象,用索氏提取法对这两种鸟的胸肌和皮下脂肪中的有机污染物进行萃取,并用气相色谱法对19种有机氯农药进行检测。结果表明,HCHs、DDTs、硫丹Ⅱ等14种有机氯农药在大滨鹬和红腹滨鹬的组织中均有不同程度的检出,所有样品中的含量最高值达1 573.5 ng/g脂重;在检出的14种有机氯农药中,α-HCH、β-HCH、γ-HCH、p, p′-DDE、硫丹Ⅱ、硫丹硫酸酯和/或p, p′-DDT的检出率达100%;在大滨鹬的肌肉组织、红腹滨鹬的肌肉和脂肪组织中,p, p′-DDE的残留量最高;而在大滨鹬的脂肪组织中硫丹硫酸酯和/或p, p′-DDT的含量最高;目标物中的艾氏剂、异狄氏剂、七氯、反式氯丹等未达检出限或含量较低。我们对比了不同物种及不同组织样本中有机氯农药的富集程度,红腹滨鹬的肌肉组织中HCHs的沉积量显著高于大滨鹬,而大滨鹬的脂肪组织中硫丹硫酸酯和/或p, p′-DDT的含量显著高于红腹滨鹬。此外,分别对比两个物种的肌肉组织和脂肪组织中有机氯农药沉积量,部分有机氯农药在脂肪组织中的沉积量显著高于肌肉组织,说明相比于肌肉组织,有机氯农药可能更易于在脂肪组织中累积。
英文摘要:
      Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including chlordanes, endosulfans, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), have been gaining much visibility in ecotoxicological studies due to their growing reported harmful effects. In this study, muscle and adipose tissue samples from five Great Knots (Calidris tenuirostris) and five Red Knots (C. canutus) at stopover sites (Table 1) along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway (EAAF) were extracted using Soxhlet extraction method and further analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) to determine residues of OCPs in tissues. Among 19 OCPs that we examined in this study, a total of 14 OCPs were detected. The highest concentration of total OCPs in tissues was 1 573.5 ng/g lipid weight (Table 2), much higher than similar work from other countries (Table 3), and seven OCPs had 100% detection frequencies. The highest concentration of detected compound was p, p′-DDE in muscle samples of Great Knots as well as muscle samples and adipose tissue samples of Red Knots, while endosulfan sulfate and/or p, p′-DDT had the highest concentration in adipose tissue samples of Great Knots. We used Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test to compare the difference of OCPs contamination between species, and the results showed that concentration of HCHs in muscles of Red Knots were significantly higher than Great Knots (P = 0.05), while the concentration of endosulfan sulfate and/or p, p′-DDT were higher in adipose tissue of Great Knots than Red Knots (P < 0.05). Paired T-test indicated that residues of OCPs were generally higher in adipose tissues than muscles (P < 0.05), suggesting that OCPs mainly concentrated in adipose tissue rather than muscle. We compared OCPs compositional profiles (Fig. 1) in this study with previous studies on OCPs in sediments in the Yellow Sea region, and found that OCP profiles of the two knot species were similar with that in sediments. Spearman Test further indicated that OCPs detection frequencies in the two knot species were positively related to that in the sediments (P < 0.05, Fig. 2), suggesting that there are close relationship between OCPs in bird body and in the sediments in the Yellow Sea region. Although it′s still unclear of the lethal threshold of OCPs in shorebirds, this study indicated that OCPs might have profound effects on the shorebirds along the EAAF.
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