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盛成,洪美玲,史海涛.2017.红耳龟与中华条颈龟初生幼体剩余卵黄、表型特征及运动能力的比较研究.动物学杂志,52(1):57-63.
红耳龟与中华条颈龟初生幼体剩余卵黄、表型特征及运动能力的比较研究
A Comparison Study on Residual Yolk, Morphological Change and Locomotion Performance Between Hatchlings of the Red-eared Slider Turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) and the Chinese Stripe-necked Turtle (Mauremys sinensis)
投稿时间:2016-01-27  修订日期:2016-12-19
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.201701007
中文关键词:  红耳龟  中华条颈龟  剩余卵黄  表型特征  运动能力
英文关键词:Red-eared Slider Turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans  Chinese Stripe-necked Turtle, Mauremys sinensis  Residual yolk  Morphological change  Locomotion performance
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No. 31360642,31372228),校级大学生创新项目(No. 081165803);
作者单位E-mail
盛成 海南师范大学 sngcng@foxmail.com 
洪美玲 海南师范大学 meilinghong_ecnu@aliyun.com 
史海涛 海南师范大学中科院成都生物研究所  
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中文摘要:
      为研究红耳龟(Trachemys scripta elegans)生理入侵机制,本研究选用本土中华条颈龟(Mauremys sinensis)为参照,对孵卵温度在(29 ± 0.3)℃、湿度为﹣220 kPa条件下孵出的初生幼体进行表型特征及运动能力的测量,禁食条件下分别在孵出第0 h、24 h、48 h、72 h、96 h、240 h时随机取10只个体解剖,分离出剩余卵黄并测量干重,比较研究两种龟初生幼体剩余卵黄的消耗、表型特征及运动能力。结果,(1)两种龟初生幼体剩余卵黄的消耗:刚孵出的红耳龟剩余卵黄含量(20.5%)显著高于中华条颈龟(5.2%);中华条颈龟经禁食72 h后剩余卵黄量仅占3.4%,至96 h已基本吸收完全,而红耳龟经禁食96 h后剩余卵黄量仍可达到11.9%,全部被吸收所用时间约为31 d。这说明红耳龟幼体孵出后剩余卵黄较多,耐饥力强。(2)两种龟初生幼体表型特征:中华条颈龟孵出1 h内体重为(7.07 ± 1.21)g(n = 30),红耳龟为(9.45 ± 1.04)g(n = 42),二者存在极显著差异(t = 8.933,df = 70,P < 0.001)。以初始体重为协变量的方差分析结果表明,红耳龟初生幼体背甲长和头高显著大于中华条颈龟初生幼体,尾长却显著小于中华条颈龟,而体高、背甲宽、腹甲长、头长和头宽差异不显著。(3)室温条件下(约28℃)运动能力:中华条颈龟初生幼体的最大持续运动距离为(80.3 ± 14.4)cm,运动过程中停顿次数为(5.6 ± 0.3)次/min;红耳龟初生幼体的最大持续运动距离为(29.8 ± 11.7)cm,停顿次数为(4.0 ± 0.2)次/min;中华条颈龟和红耳龟初生幼体游完1 m泳道所用时间分别为(32.8 ± 4.3)s和(61.2 ± 7.2)s。因此,与本土中华条颈龟相比,红耳龟初生幼体个体较大,剩余卵黄较多,运动能力欠佳。研究结果为红耳龟外来入侵的生理适应机制研究提供了参考,并为龟类的卵内繁殖投入研究提供了基础数据。
英文摘要:
      The Red-eared Slider Turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) is ranked as one of the 100 world′s worst invasive species. Our previous study found out that hatchlings of Red-eared Slider Turtle was able to survive for more than 30 days without eating any food. In order to reveal the underlying mechanism of this physiological phenomenon, we compared the morphological change between the Red-eared Slider Turtle and native Chinese Stripe-necked Turtle (Mauremys sinensis). We measured their body weight, body height, length and width of carapace, plastron length, head length, head width, head height and tail length and their locomotion performance, including maximum distance of continuous movement, stop times of 60 s running, and of 1 000 mm swimming within 1 h after hatched, and the dry weight of the residual yolk at 0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, 240 h post hatching without providing any food. We got following results: (1) the dry weight of residual yolk in the Red-eared Slider Turtle was significantly higher than that in the Chinese Stripe-necked Turtle (20.5% vs. 5.2%, t = 7.93, df = 18, P < 0.001) hatched at the optimum temperature for yolk utilization (about 29℃). Without providing any food, the residual yolk in the Chinese Stripe-necked Turtles was 3.4% after 72 h, and was totally absorbed within 96 h. While the dry weight of residual yolk in the Red-eared Slider Turtle were 11.9% after 96 h hatched, and it took 31 days being totally absorbed (Table 2). That indicated the Red-eared Slider Turtle can suffered longer time of starvation with the heavier of residual yolk. (2) The initial body weight (measured within 1 h after hatched) of Red-eared Slider Turtle (9.45 ± 1.04 g, n = 42) is significantly greater than Chinese Stripe-necked Turtle (7.07 ± 1.21 g, n = 30) (t = 8.933, df = 70, P < 0.001). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for testing body traits difference between these two species showed that only two values, carapace length and head height, were significantly greater in the Red-eared Slider Turtle than those in native turtle (F(1, 69) = 9.899, P = 0.002; F(1, 69) = 7.102, P = 0.010) while showed a shorter tail length (F(1, 69) = 526.93, P < 0.001) and bigger body size in the Red-eared Slider Turtle than native turtle (Table 1). (3) The Chinese Stripe-necked Turtle made a continually moving 80.3 ± 14.4 cm maximally by stopping 5.6 ± 0.3 times/min. In contrast, the Red-eared Slider Turtle only moved 29.8 ± 11.7 cm by stopping 4.0 ± 0.2 times/min. It took 32.8 ± 4.3 s and 61.2 ± 7.2 s to swim 1 m for the Chinese Stripe-necked Turtle and the Red-eared Slider Turtle, respectively. These findings suggested that in contrast with the Chinese Stripe-necked Turtle, the Red-eared Slider Turtle hatchling had larger body size with more residual yolk, but had lower locomotion performance. All these biological characteristics helped the slider tolerance of starved. Our results could provide basic information on the invasive mechanism in Red-eared Slider Turtle.
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