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米志平,廖文波.2016.林蛙属3物种皮肤的组织结构比较.动物学杂志,51(5):844-852.
林蛙属3物种皮肤的组织结构比较
Comparison of Skin Histostructures in Three Species of Genus Rana
投稿时间:2015-08-15  修订日期:2016-07-06
DOI:DOI: 10.13859/j.cjz.201605014
中文关键词:  林蛙属  皮肤  组织学  钙化层
英文关键词:Genus Rana  Skin  Histology  Calcified layer
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(面上项目,重点项目,重大项目)
作者单位E-mail
米志平 西南野生动植物资源保护教育部重点实验室(西华师范大学) mizhp@163.com 
廖文波 西南野生动植物资源保护教育部重点实验室(西华师范大学)  
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中文摘要:
      利用石蜡切片和H.E染色技术,对蛙科(Ranidae)林蛙属(Rana)高原林蛙(R. kukunoris)、昭觉林蛙(R. chaochiaoensis)和峨眉林蛙(R. omeimontis)的皮肤组织结构进行了观察。应用SPSS 13.0统计软件,对皮肤的厚度、皮肤腺的相对数量和面积作了比较分析。3物种皮肤的基本结构相似,都由表皮和真皮组成。表皮是角质化的复层扁平上皮,由角质层、颗粒层、棘细胞层和生发层构成。真皮又分为疏松层和致密层,疏松层内分布有黏液腺、颗粒腺和脂腺3种类型的皮肤腺,黏液腺在体背和体腹皮肤内基本均匀分布,而颗粒腺主要以团块聚集形式散布在体背皮肤中。在高原林蛙皮肤中还发现了1种与以往描述不同的特殊嗜酸性腺体。皮肤厚度存在种间差异和部位差异。高原林蛙的表皮里有少量毛细血管和发达的色素细胞分布,真皮疏松层里有发达的腺体,这些可能是其对高海拔、低氧、低温和强紫外线辐射生活环境的适应策略。在峨眉林蛙和昭觉林蛙皮肤真皮的疏松层和致密层相邻处,发现有呈波浪条带状的、H.E染色呈蓝色的钙化层结构,体背部的钙化层比体腹部的发达。钙化层的功能可能包括防止体内水分散失、贮存钙离子、构成与体外环境进行物质交换的屏障等方面。
英文摘要:
      The histological structures of the dorsal-ventral skin in three species of genus Rana, Plateau Brown Frog (R. kukunoris), Chaochiao Brown Frog (R. chaochiaoensis) and Omei Brown Frog (R. omeimontis) were observed using paraffin section and hematoxylin-eosin staining. A paired t-test was used to analyse differences in thickness of skin, relative number of mucous glands and transverse areas of a mucous gland between dorsal and ventral skin in each species. Differences in thickness of skin and transverse areas of a mucous gland among species were tested using One-way ANOVA. We used Mann-Whitney U-test to compare differences in relative number of mucous glands and transverse areas of a granular gland among species, because normal distribution of the variance was not met. All statistical tests were performed using software SPSS 13.0. All values given were shown as Mean ± SD. The adaptive mechanism of skin to terrestrial environment was also discussed. The results show that the skin structures of 3 frog species studied are similar, composed of epidermis and dermis (PlateⅠ). The epidermis is keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, which is made up of stratum comeum, stratum granusum, stratum spinpsum and stratum germinativum. The dermis consists of two layers, the stratum spongiosum and the stratum compactum. The stratum spongiosum is mostly composed of loose connective tissue. The stratum compactum is made up of dense connective tissue. The collagen fibers in the stratum compactum lie in bundles parallel to the body surface. There are three types of cutaneous glands, mucous glands, granular glands and lipidic glands in the stratum spongiosum (PlateⅠ). The mucous glands are evenly distributed in the dorsal-ventral skin, however, the granular glands mostly are distributed in the dorsal skin in a cluster. A new type of eosinophil gland (Plate Ⅰ: 5, 8), different from mucous glands and granular glands described before, have been found in R. kukunoris. The skin thickness varies both between different species and between different regions of skin from the same animal (Table 1), and it is related to the size of mucous glands (Table 2). In R. kukunoris, the epidermis contains a few capillaries and rich chromatophores, and rich cutaneous glands exist in the stratum spongiosum, which is probably a strategy of adaption to environment with high altitude, low temperature, and strong ultraviolet radiation. The calcified layer lies between the stratum spongiosum and the stratum compacturn in R. chaochiaoensis and in R. omeimontis (PlateⅠ: 2﹣4, 10). It is a wavy strip and stains blue by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The calcified layer is more developed in the dorsal skin than in the ventral. Its function may be associated with hydric balance, calcium storage, or serve as a barrier in the exchange of substances.
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