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徐佳倩,吴旭干,张鹏超,何杰,樊宇薇,柳梅梅,成永旭.2016.池塘养殖中华绒螯蟹二龄雄体生长、性腺发育和第二性征的变化研究.动物学杂志,51(3):434-448.
池塘养殖中华绒螯蟹二龄雄体生长、性腺发育和第二性征的变化研究
The Study of Growth, Goandal Development and Secondary Sexual Characteristics of Pond-reared Male Eriocheir sinensis during the Second Year Culture
投稿时间:2015-05-22  修订日期:2016-05-13
DOI:DOI: 10.13859/j.cjz.201603011
中文关键词:  中华绒螯蟹  池塘养殖  二龄雄体  生长  性腺发育  第二性征
英文关键词:Eriocheir sinensis  Pond culture  Second year male  Growth  Goandal development  Secondary sexual characteristics
基金项目:2013年上海市大学生创新活动计划项目(2013-07);上海市科学技术委员会项目(13231203504, 13DZ2280500);科技部港澳台科技合作专项项目(2014DFT30270);上海高校水产学一流学科建设项目(2012-62-0908).
作者单位E-mail
徐佳倩 上海海洋大学 水产种质资源发掘与利用教育部重点实验室 上海 201306上海海洋大学水产与生命学院 上海 201306 xujiaqian1015@foxmail.com 
吴旭干 上海海洋大学 水产种质资源发掘与利用教育部重点实验室 上海 201306上海海洋大学 上海市教委水产动物遗传育种协同创新中心 上海 201306 xgwu@shou.edu.cn 
张鹏超 上海海洋大学 水产种质资源发掘与利用教育部重点实验室 上海 201306上海海洋大学水产与生命学院 上海 201306  
何杰 上海海洋大学 水产种质资源发掘与利用教育部重点实验室 上海 201306上海海洋大学 上海市教委水产动物遗传育种协同创新中心 上海 201306  
樊宇薇 上海海洋大学海洋学院 上海 201306  
柳梅梅 上海海洋大学 水产种质资源发掘与利用教育部重点实验室 上海 201306上海海洋大学水产与生命学院 上海 201306  
成永旭 上海海洋大学 水产种质资源发掘与利用教育部重点实验室 上海 201306上海海洋大学 上海市教委水产动物遗传育种协同创新中心 上海 201306  
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中文摘要:
      为进一步了解中华绒螯蟹(以下简称河蟹)二龄雄体在池塘养殖条件下的生长发育规律,本研究采用养殖实验、活体解剖和显微观察方法,首先研究了池塘养殖过程中二龄雄体的生长、性腺指数、肝胰腺指数、大螯绒毛长度及其覆盖比例的变化情况,并探讨了这些指标间的相关性,其次对成熟雄体的生殖系统外观和组成进行了拍照和描述。结果表明:(1)池塘养殖条件下河蟹二龄雄体的体重、甲壳长、甲壳宽和体厚增长主要发生在3 ~ 8月,4 ~ 5月间的增重率和特定增长率最高,9 ~ 12月间的体重和形态学参数增长均不显著;肥满度总体上呈先下降后上升的趋势。(2)二龄雄体池塘养殖早期性腺发育较慢,3 ~ 5月肉眼很难发现,6月份生精区已经清晰可见,7 ~ 11月份性腺指数显著增加,7月份部分个体储精囊中已有精荚,8月份开始副性腺体积迅速增加,整体上,HSI和GSI呈显著负相关,而GSI与生殖蜕壳前的雄体体重及月份均呈显著正相关。(3)二龄雄体的大螯绒毛长度及其内侧绒毛覆盖比例在4 ~ 8月呈显著增长趋势,其余月份增加不显著,绒毛长度与覆盖比例、绒毛长度与体重、绒毛覆盖比例与体重、绒毛长度与性腺指数、绒毛覆盖比例与性腺指数都呈显著正相关。(4)二龄成熟雄体的生殖系统由体内和体外两大部分,体内部分主要包括精巢、输精管(分为前、中、后三个部分)、副性腺和射精管,输精管后端储存着大量精荚,体外部分主要由阴茎和交接器组成。综上,池塘养殖河蟹二龄雄体的生长、性腺发育与其第二性征关系密切,雄体生殖系统组成复杂,今后需要深入研究雄体的性腺发育规律和分期。
英文摘要:
      For the further understanding of the growth and development pattern during the second year culture of pond-reared male Eriocheir sinensis, this study was designed to investigate the changes of growth parameters, gonadosomatic index (GSI), hepatosomatic index (HSI), length of chela hair and their coverage ratio on the front chela during the second year culture of male E. sinensis using culture experiment, vivisection and microscopic observation, and their relationships were further analyzed among these indices. We used the software SPSS 17.0 to analysis the experimental data, and did homogeneity of variance test by Levene. When the data did not meet the homogeneity of variance, arcsine or square root were performed for the percentage data. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for experimental results, and Tukey s-b(K) was used for multiple comparisons. When the data was converted still not satisfied with the homogeneity of variance, we used Games-Howell nonparametric test for multiple comparisons. When P<0.05, it was significantly different and we drew charts on EXCEL. Then, the overall appearance and composition of mature reproductive system were photographed and described for the male E. sinensis. The results showed that: (1) The significant increase mainly existed during the period of March to August for the body weight (BW), carapace length (CL), carapace width (CW), and body thick (BT) during the second year culture of pond-reared male E. sinensis (Table 1), and the highest of weight gain rate (WGR) and specific growth rate (SGR) were found during April to May (Fig. 1); no significant differences were found for the body weight and the other morphological parameters during the period of September to December (Table 1). The changing trend of condition factor (CF) was shown as ‘high-low-high’, and the lowest CF was recorded at May (Table 1). (2) The gonadal development was very slow during the early stage (March to May), and it was difficult to find male gonad for this period. The testis was eye-visible from June, and the GSI increased significantly from July to November (Fig. 3 A). At July, spermatophore could be found in seminal vesicle for some crabs while the volume of accessory gland increased rapidly until August. Overall, there was a significant negative correlation between GSI and HIS (Fig. 3 B) while significant positive correlations were found between GSI and BW before the puberty molting (Fig. 4 A) as well as GSI and month (Fig. 4 B). (3) The hair length and the coverage ratio on the front chela increased significantly from April to August and no significant change was found during the other months (Fig. 6). There were significant positive correlations between hair length and coverage ratio on the front chela, hair length and BW, hair coverage ratio of chela and BW, hair length and GSI, as well as hair coverage ratio and GSI (Table 2). (4) The reproductive system of mature male E. sinensis consisted of internal and external parts, and the internal parts mainly included testis, vas deferens (divided into anterior, median and posterior parts), accessory gland, and ejaculatory duct while the external part was made of penis and petasma. The posterior vas deferens was also named as seminal vesicles because it contained plenty of spermatophores for mature males (Fig. 7). In conclusion, there were close relationships for growth, goandal development and secondary sexual characteristics during the second year culture of pond-reared male E. sinensis. The composition of male reproductive system is complex, and further study should be conducted to investigate the gonadal development pattern and staging for male E. sinensis.
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