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沈琪琦,刘奇,陈毅,赵娇,彭兴文,陈珉,张礼标.2015.菲菊头蝠不同地理种群回声定位声波差异及其影响因子.动物学杂志,50(5):716-724.
菲菊头蝠不同地理种群回声定位声波差异及其影响因子
Geographical Variation in Echolocation Calls of Least Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus pusillus) in China
投稿时间:2015-01-04  修订日期:2015-09-04
DOI:DOI: 10.13859/j.cjz.201505007
中文关键词:  菲菊头蝠  回声定位  地理种群  适应性进化
英文关键词:Rhinolophus pusillus  Echolocation calls  Geographical population  Adaptive evolution
基金项目:广东省昆虫研究所创新人才基金项目(GDEI-cxrc201303),广东省重大国际合作项目(2013B050800024)
作者单位E-mail
沈琪琦 华东师范大学广东省昆虫研究所 shenqq2011@163.com 
刘奇 广东省昆虫研究所  
陈毅 广东省昆虫研究所  
赵娇 广东省昆虫研究所  
彭兴文 广东省昆虫研究所  
陈珉 华东师范大学  
张礼标 广东省昆虫研究所 zhanglb@gdei.gd.cn 
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中文摘要:
      回声定位声波地理差异及其形成原因是蝙蝠生态学研究领域一个基本而关键的问题,对于探索物种生存机制、物种形成及其保护具有重要科学意义。本研究从较大地理尺度上(9个地理种群)研究了菲菊头蝠回声定位声波结构的地理差异,并进一步探讨了影响回声定位声波地理种群差异的因素。结果表明,菲菊头蝠雌性的体型较雄性略大,其主频较高。不同地理种群之间回声定位声波差异明显,包括脉冲持续时间、脉冲间隔、主频、以及带宽在不同的地理种群之间均表现出一定程度的差异。进一步分析发现,不同地理种群之间的雌性菲菊头蝠前臂长和体重均与主频呈较弱的负相关,降雨量与雌性的主频呈较强的正相关;而不同地理种群之间的雄性前臂长、体重和降雨量与回声定位声波参数均无相关性;此外,地理距离、温度、湿度均与雌雄回声定位声波参数无相关性。本研究结果表明,菲菊头蝠不同地理种群间的回声定位声波出现明显差异,其中体型和降雨量为主要影响因子;说明蝙蝠回声定位叫声的进化主要受到了当地生境的影响,表现出动物对不同生境的适应性进化。
英文摘要:
      Echolocation calls geographical differences and their causes are fundamental researches and critical areas of animal ecology. It has important scientific significance in exploration speciation, biodiversity protection, and animal survival mechanism. In this study, we investigated the differences of echolocation calls structure among geographical populations of least horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus pusillus) from a relative large scale, including nine geographic populations: Hainan (Haikou), Hebei (Handan), Shandong (Mengyin), Jiangsu (Yixing), Guangxi (Guilin), Guangdong (Shaoguan, Shenzhen, Zhuhai) and Macau by t test and One-way ANOVA. Furthermore, we would explore the factors that cause the sound differences among different geographical populations by Pearson correlation. The results showed that females were slightly larger than males (FA, females: 38.12±0.26 mm, males: 36.79±0.32 mm, t=-2.75, P<0.01), and the dominant frequency of females (109.90 ± 0.31 kHz) was higher than that of males (male: 108.47 ± 0.15 kHz) (t = -4.33, P <0.01) (Table 1). The echolocation calls among different geographical populations shown a certain degree variations in pulse duration, pulse interval, frequency, and bandwidth. Forearm length and body mass of females were both negatively correlated with their dominant frequency (FA: r=-0.281, P=0.032; Mass: r=-0.371, P=0.004) (Fig 2 and Fig 3), and the rainfall and the dominant frequency were positively correlated (r=0.853, P=0.007) (Fig 4). But the echolocation calls of males have no correlations with forearm length, body mass, and rainfall. In additionally, the echolocation parameters of both males and females have no correlations with geographical distance, temperature, and humidity. These results showed that the echolocation calls varied among different geographic populations of horseshoe bat, which might be mainly effected by local habitats, such as rainfall. This variation exhibits adaptive evolution when the animals live in different habitats.
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