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官天培,龚明昊,胡婧,仇剑,谌利民,陈万里,郑维超,宋延龄.2015.小麂秋季利用人工盐场的节律.动物学杂志,50(2):169-175.
小麂秋季利用人工盐场的节律
reliminary Study on the Rhythm of Chinese Muntjac Visiting Artificial Mineral Licks During Autumn
投稿时间:2014-11-23  修订日期:2015-02-04
DOI:DOI: 10.13859/j.cjz.201502002
中文关键词:  小麂  舔盐 节律  干扰
英文关键词:Chinese Muntjac  salt lick  rhythm  disturbance
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31300319);绵阳师范学院科研启动项目(QD2012A12);香港海洋公园保育基金(OPCF)
作者单位E-mail
官天培 绵阳师范学院生态安全与保护四川省重点实验室 绵阳 621000 tp-guan@hotmail.com 
龚明昊 中国林业科学研究院湿地研究所 北京100091  
胡婧 广元市林业与园林局  
仇剑 四川省野生动物资源调查保护管理站  
谌利民 唐家河国家级自然保护区  
陈万里 唐家河国家级自然保护区  
郑维超 唐家河国家级自然保护区  
宋延龄 中国科学院动物研究所 songyl@ioz.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      舔食盐分是野生动物的常见习性,但针对具体物种的研究较少。我们于2013年秋季(9月-10月)利用4台红外触发相机在唐家河国家级自然保护区对小麂(Muntiacus reevesi)利用人工盐场的时间格局进行了初步研究。我们共收集照片记录398条,其中可鉴别性别的记录288条。结果显示,小麂日均访问盐场12.97±2.14次,舔盐高峰出现在上午的8:00-9:00,以及下午的14:00-16:00,低谷分别出现在凌晨2:00点、上午的6:00以及晚上的21:00-23:00点。独立样本t检验显示小麂对距离公路较远的盐场(10.86±2.25)访问次数显著高于近距离盐场(2.10±0.58, t=3.77, P=0.001)。不论以全天统计抑或按照不同时间段(上午、下午和夜间)分别统计,两性对盐场的利用强度均无显著差异。我们仅发现在13:00-17:00,雄性访问盐场的强度显著高于雌性(t=-2.47,P=0.048),且在13:00-14:00和15:00-16:00出现两个访问高峰。我们推测性间的活动节律差异、体型差异以及雄性的干扰均可能是雌性在下午时段降低盐场利用的原因。人为活动对离公路近的栖息地干扰较强,因而影响了小麂对栖息地的利用,使小麂回避靠近公路的盐场。因此,我们建议自然保护区在选择盐场位置时应考虑人为干扰因素。
英文摘要:
      Licking salt at natural or artificial salt sites is common in ungulates, but little is known about Chinese muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi). We preliminarily studied the rhythm of muntjac visiting artificial salt sites by using 4 infrared cameras with two distance level to road(50m vs.150m)within broadleaf forest in Tangjiahe Nature Reserve from September to October in 2013. Totally, we collected 288 valid records, in which male and female can be clearly identified. Muntjac visited salt sites 12.97±2.14 times daily, with two visiting peaks from 8:00 am to 9:00 am and 14:00pm to 16:00 pm respectively. However, the muntjac seldom visited salt sites at 2 am and 6 am in the early morning and 9:00 pm to 11:00pm during the night. We observed Chinese muntjac visited the salt sites located far from road (150m)more frequently than they did to sites that close to road (50m, 10.86 ± 2.25 vs. 2.10±0.58, t=3.77, P=0.001). Female and male muntjac showed similar salt lick visiting temporal pattern during night and no significant difference of visiting times was detected either calculated by day or by separated periods (morning, afternoon and night). The only difference of rhythm found between sex visiting salt sites was 13:00-17:00. Thus, male visited salt sites more frequently than female(t=-2.47,p=0.048) and two visiting peak observed during 13:00-14:00 and 15:00-16:00. The results indicated that human disturbance might be a factor hindered muntjac using related habitat and therefore impact their utilization of minerals. Female exhibit lower salt lick frequency during afternoon than male might be induced by activity rhythm variation and body weight variation between sexes, as well as male disturbance. Based on this study, we recommend nature reserve should consider human disturbance when setting artificial salt licks for the Chinese muntjac and other ungulates.
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