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张淑霞,孔德军,李连翔,夏峰.2015.泸沽湖及其附近竹地海湿地越冬水鸟群落组成及历史变化分析.动物学杂志,50(5):686-694.
泸沽湖及其附近竹地海湿地越冬水鸟群落组成及历史变化分析
Waterbird Communities Changes in the past two decades in Lugu Lake and its adjacent Zhudihai Wetland, SW China
投稿时间:2014-10-13  修订日期:2015-07-13
DOI:DOI: 10.13859/j.cjz.201505003
中文关键词:  泸沽湖  越冬水鸟  物种丰富度  多度
英文关键词:Lugu Lake  Wintering Waterbirds  Species Richness  Abundance
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
张淑霞 ① 云南省环境科学研究院云南省高原湖泊流域污染过程与管理重点实验室 昆明650034 ② 大理大学东喜玛拉雅资源与环境研究所 大理671003 zhangsx@eastern-himalaya.cn 
孔德军 ③ 昆明学院生命科学与技术系 昆明 650144
④ 云南省高校特色生物资源开发与利用重点实验室 昆明 650144 
 
李连翔 云南省泸沽湖省级自然保护区管理局 丽江 674309  
夏峰 云南省环境保护厅自然生态处 昆明 650032  
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中文摘要:
      泸沽湖是中国西南重要的水鸟越冬地和旅游风景区,开展泸沽湖越冬水鸟群落组成现状调查并进行历史变化分析,对指导泸沽湖水鸟及其栖息地保护和管理具有重要意义。2013年10月至2014年2月(12月除外),逐月对泸沽湖全湖及其西北方向的竹地海湿地(距离泸沽湖约500 m,面积约0.4 km2)越冬水鸟进行调查。泸沽湖共记录到水鸟27种,观察的最大个体总数约为22 600只,符合国际重要湿地标准。泸沽湖越冬水鸟群落的主要优势物种为骨顶鸡(Fulica atra),其最大观察数约为10 300只。竹地海湿地共记录到水鸟16种,观察到的最大个体总数约为3 600只,其中赤麻鸭(Tadorna ferruginea)约为2 700只;鉴于竹地海湿地亦为水鸟聚集的栖息地,建议将其划入泸沽湖自然保护区加以保护。对比1992年的调查数据,发现泸沽湖及其附近竹地海湿地越冬水鸟的物种丰富度(species richness)可能有所下降,由原来的33种下降到现在的30种,但个体总数量相对稳定。多种涉禽和喜浅水活动的钻水鸭类(dabbling ducks)消失,可能与湖岸区旅游活动的持续进行有关;泸沽湖曾经的主要优势物种赤嘴潜鸭(Netta rufina)种群数量大幅下降,暗示泸沽湖生态系统可能已发生变化。泸沽湖旅游业进一步发展的同时,保护好现存的浅水栖息地将是泸沽湖水鸟多样性不再继续下降的关键。
英文摘要:
      Lugu Lake is an important wintering site for migrating waterbirds in southwest China, and it is a famous tourism scenic area as well. To understand waterbirds community composition and dynamic change in Lugu Lake and Zhudihai Wetland about 500 m apart in the northwest in winter (from October 2013 to February 2014) monthly (except for December). The wintering waterbirds were count five and four surveys were conducted at 13 sites in Lugu Lake and at one site in Zhudihai wetland (Fig. 1). Total 27 species (see appendix) was record in Lugu Lake, including one Ranked Ⅱ national protected species, namely the common crane (Grus grus). The maximum waterbird observed there was about 22 800 individuals, which meet the standard of Ramsar wetlands. The waterbirds was dominated by coot (Fulica atra) with maximum individuals of 10 300. Total 16 species (see Appendix) was recorded in Zhudihai wetand in spite of its area being as small as 0.4 km2. The maximum birds observed was about 3 600 individuals dominated by Ruddy Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea) with maximum number of 2 700. Comparison with the survey data collected in 1992 in both Lugu Lake and Zhudihai wetland, five species were added and eight were lost from the bird community, resulted in the species richness reduced from original 33 to 30. However, the waterbird abundance in the two wetlands was stable. Some of the dabbling ducks and wading birds were listed in the name list of disappeared species since 1990s, which might be caused by the booming tourism near lake shore. The ever dominant species Red-crested Pochard (Netta rufina) lost about half of its wintering population in Lugu Lake compared with the data collected in 1992, which indicated the ecosystem in Lugu Lake might undergo some change. Considering the species rechness in Zhudihai wetland, we suggested it need to be intergraded in the Lugu Lake Nature Reserve system and to protect the shallow water habitat remained in Lugu Lake to stop species richness decreasing in light of the further development of tourism.
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