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马鸣,庭州,徐国华,道·才吾加甫,艾孜江·买买提明,邢睿,罗彪,吴道宁.2015.利用多旋翼微型飞行器监测天山地区高山兀鹫繁殖简报.动物学杂志,50(2):306-310.
利用多旋翼微型飞行器监测天山地区高山兀鹫繁殖简报
Telecraft Monitoring on the Breeding Ecology of Himalayan Griffon Vulture Gyps himalayensis in Tianshan Mountains
投稿时间:2014-09-15  修订日期:2015-02-09
DOI:DOI: 10.13859/j.cjz.201502020
中文关键词:  高山兀鹫  窝卵数  巢材  无人机监测  天山
英文关键词:Himalayan Griffon Vulture  Clutch size  Nest materials  UAV monitoring  Tianshan Mts.
基金项目:国家自然科学(No. 31272291,30970340);香港观鸟会中国自然保育基金(201202);第一作者介绍马鸣,男,研究员;研究方向鸟类生态学;E-mailmaming@ms.xjb.ac.cn收稿日期2014-09-09,修回日期:2014-09-09
作者单位E-mail
马鸣 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 maming@ms.xjb.ac.cn 
庭州 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所  
徐国华 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所  
道·才吾加甫 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所  
艾孜江·买买提明 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所  
邢睿 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所  
罗彪 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所  
吴道宁 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所  
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中文摘要:
      高山兀鹫(Gyps himalayensis)喜在山崖绝壁上营巢,海拔2400-4800m,野外高空作业,攀爬危险,观察难度较大。2014年4-9月,笔者在新疆天山中段尝试用国产多旋翼微型飞行器(无人机)寻找和拍摄高山兀鹫巢穴,结合路线搜索法和行为扫描法,进行栖息地调查、巢数统计、巢材分析、窝卵(雏)数、雏鸟生长与发育、繁殖周期、食性及食物分析。在7个地点的14个巢区调查统计表明,高山兀鹫喜欢在朝南的崖壁上集群营巢(78.6%朝南,n=112),最长的一个繁殖地绵延7.3 km,相距另外一个较近的巢区约47 km。巢材以禾草为主,如早熟禾、针茅、老芒麦等,缺乏粗大枝条。窝卵(雏)数为1枚(n=21),为了错开产卵时间,整个繁殖周期长达8~9个月(1-10月),超出单独个体平均繁殖周期1倍的时间。
英文摘要:
      Himalayan Griffon or Himalayan Vulture (Gyps himalayensis) is almost endemic to China. It is relatively rare in neighboring nations. It is known to people as a mysterious highland raptor species. Many people found this bird species disgusting because they scavenge on dead bodies, especially when people learn that they were actually feeding on human fresh in the stunning sky-burial ceremony. Other than that, few were known about their living cycle. Himalayan GriffonThe Vulture Gyps himalayensis is preference to nest on the cliffs (elevation from 2400 m to 4800 m), it is very dangerous to climb the cliff to observe the reproductive process. From April to September, 2014, we tried to find and shoot monitor the nest with domestic micro air vehicle (MAV or UAV monitoring). We also used the route search method and behavioral scanning method, conducted habitat surveys, nest number statistics, analysis of nest material, egg or young number count, nestling growth and development, reproduction cycles, diet and food analysis. Most of vultures built their nests on the southern slope facing the sun (c. 78.6%, n=112). The nest materials were consisted of mainly fine reeds such as Poa spp., Elymus spp.), Stipa spp., Agropyron cristatum, Elymus sibiricus and that was rather different from that of other raptors. This demonstrates that Himalayan Vulture have a very delicate heart for their nest and chick. The clutch size is only one (n=21). Breeding cycle included nest building from January to March, egg laying from Jan to Apr (different times), egg sitting from Apr to Jun, and young birds leaving the nests from Jul to Oct. Chick raising lasted as long as 3-4 months, and the longest being 5 months (hatching in March, leaving nest in August). That was relatively long indeed.
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