• 首页关于本刊期刊订阅编委会作者指南过刊浏览
苏化龙,马强,王英,果洛·周杰.2015.人类活动对青藏高原胡兀鹫繁殖成功率和种群现状的影响.动物学杂志,50(5):661-676.
人类活动对青藏高原胡兀鹫繁殖成功率和种群现状的影响
Effects of Human Activities on the Breeding Success and Population Status of Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau
投稿时间:2014-08-30  修订日期:2015-07-13
DOI:DOI: 10.13859/j.cjz.201505001
中文关键词:  胡兀鹫  繁殖  种群现状  种群结构变化  致危因素  青藏高原
英文关键词:Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus barbatus  Breeding  Population status  Population structure
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助(项目批准号:31071933);国家科技基础条件平台“自然保护区生物标本资源共享子平台”(项目批准号:2005DKA21404)。 人类活动对青藏高原胡兀鹫繁殖成功率和种群现状的影响
作者单位E-mail
苏化龙 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所 suhualong@sina.cn 
马强 中国林业科学研究院荒漠化研究所 北京 100091  
王英 昆明市财经商贸学院 昆明 650228  
果洛·周杰 年保玉则生态环境保护协会 久治 624700  
摘要点击次数: 1406
全文下载次数: 2100
中文摘要:
      摘要:2010至2013年,对青藏高原4个省区(西藏、四川、青海、甘肃)中的7个胡兀鹫(Gypaetus barbatus barbatus)繁殖地进行了调查,结合1991至1992年的调查资料,获得的调查结果为:产卵期12月上旬至翌年1月末(12月7日至1月28日,n = 4),孵化期为55 ~ 61 d(n = 3),窝卵数平均为1.9枚(n = 14),测量3枚卵的平均长和宽分别为84.4 mm(83.1 ~ 88.3 mm)和68.03 mm(67.0 ~ 70.0 mm)。繁殖成功率为81.82%(2010 ~ 2012年,n = 22)。巢址分布海拔为2 600 ~ 4 575 m。在具有代表性的繁殖地内,繁殖对之间距离平均为35.84 km(25.10 ~ 47.3 km),领域平均面积为321.13 km2(157.56 ~ 559.32 km2)。20年来(1990年以来)的种群结构变动为:胡兀鹫幼体数量比例从30.17%降低到16.67%,成鸟比例从61.21%提高到70.83%。采取与高山兀鹫(Gyps himalayensis)数量进行对比的方式,估算青藏高原250万km2面积的胡兀鹫种群数量少于1 410个繁殖对。威胁胡兀鹫生存的因素可分为4大类:(1)非法猎捕,包括非法获取胡兀鹫观赏标本和传统医药,方式为枪击、毒饵、网套等;(2)间接伤害,主要为鼠药中毒,其次是因人类在被食肉兽咬死的家畜体中施放毒药或在家畜尸体边布放的兽铗而造成伤害;(3)基础设施建设导致的伤害,如输电线路和风电场导致胡兀鹫触电和碰撞,道路建设直接对其巢址生境的破坏和人为干扰增加等;(4)人类生产和生活方式变化产生的负面影响,如对体弱家畜的快速加工和对家畜胴体的彻底利用导致胡兀鹫的食物来源减少,家畜疫病防治导致胡兀鹫蒙受残留药物的影响,在寒冷季节柔软巢材(如羊毛)的缺乏降低了胡兀鹫对卵和幼雏的保暖能力。
英文摘要:
      This paper presents data from a study of 7 breeding sites of the Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus barbatus) in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from 1991 to 1992 and from 2010 to 2013. The results indicate that laying date of the Bearded Vulture began in early December and lasted until late January (range 7 December to 28 January, n = 4). Mean clutch size was 1.86 and 85.71% of nests contained two eggs (n = 14). The size of 3 eggs mearsured were 84.4 (83.1-88.3) mm in length and 68.03 (67.0-70.0) mm in width. Breeding success were 81.82% (2010-2012, n = 22). The altitude range of nest sites was from 2 600 m to 4 575 m. The average distance between the breeding pairs was 35.84 km (25.10-47.3 km), and territorial area were 321.13 km2 (157.56-559.32 km2). The proportion of juveniles was reduced from 30.17% to 16.67% during the past 20 years, and that of adults was increased from 61.21% to 70.83%(since 1990). Compared with the breeding nests of the Himalayan Griffon (Gyps himalayensis), we estimated the population size of this species was less than 1 410 breeding pairs in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (about 2 500 000 km2). The threaten factors to the Bearded Vulture are 4 major categories of more than 10 kinds: (1) persecution by hunting, including the illegal acquisition of ornamental specimens and traditional medicine by the way of shooting, poisoning bait and trapping net etc.;(2) indirect unconscious persecution, mainly the rodenticide poisoning, the second is to anti-wolf poisoning activity, included snares placed in the livestock carcass side. (3) setting up the infrastructure, such as power lines and the wind farm, road construction directly to habitat disturbance and lead to greatly increase in human disturbance to the nesting area;(4) the influence of modern production and way of life, these relate to the rapid processing of the frail livestock and complete utilization of livestock carcass(to reduce the food source), animal disease prevention and control measures may cause the effect of residual drug for the Bearded Vulture, the lack of soft nest material(wool used for lining the interior of the nest) and the waste chemical fiber textiles is used by the Bearded Vulture can affect the warm demands of egg and chick in the cold season.
附件
查看全文  查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器