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蔡玥,李东来,李其久,万冬梅.2014.杂色山雀繁殖期与非繁殖期食物组成及利用.动物学杂志,49(6):811-819.
杂色山雀繁殖期与非繁殖期食物组成及利用
The Food Composition and Utilization of Varied Tit, Parus varius in Breeding and Non-breeding Season
投稿时间:2014-03-14  修订日期:2014-09-12
DOI:DOI: 10.13859/j.cjz.201406004
中文关键词:  杂色山雀  繁殖期  非繁殖期  杂食性  营养需求
英文关键词:Parus varius  breeding  non-breeding  omnivorous  nutritional requirements
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
蔡玥 辽宁大学生命科学院 辽宁省动物资源与疾病防治重点实验室 沈阳 110036 cy2012rebecca@163.com 
李东来 辽宁大学生命科学院 辽宁省动物资源与疾病防治重点实验室 沈阳 110036  
李其久 辽宁大学生命科学院 辽宁省动物资源与疾病防治重点实验室 沈阳 110036  
万冬梅 辽宁大学生命科学院 辽宁省动物资源与疾病防治重点实验室 沈阳 110036 wandongmei@lnu.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      食物资源是动物赖以生存的重要物质基础和能量来源。研究鸟类不同时期的食物选择和利用对于了解该物种取食行为的可塑性和生态适应性将具有重要意义。本文于2012年4月至2013年10月,通过取食行为观察、育雏分析和投食实验来研究杂色山雀(Parus varius)繁殖期与非繁殖的食物组成及利用的差别。结果发现,杂色山雀繁殖期与非繁殖期存在显著的食物差别,繁殖期完全取食动物性食物,而非繁殖期则以植物性食物为主,兼食少量昆虫。繁殖期成鸟取食的食物主要为鳞翅目、蜘蛛目、鞘翅目、双翅目以及少量的直翅目、异翅亚目以及膜翅目动物,育雏的食物资源主要为鳞翅目幼虫(67.86%),其次为蜘蛛目、鳞翅目成虫、膜翅目以及鞘翅目幼虫和少量直翅目,但与成鸟的食物存在显著区别,特别是鳞翅目幼虫的比例极高。非繁殖期的食物主要以植物种子(48.91%)和浆果为主(51.09%),其中,浆果的比例较高,对16种潜在食物资源的取食选择也证明对浆果类食物具有较明显的偏爱。杂色山雀不同时期的食物差别和食性的可塑性可能是由于食物供给和能量需求的季节性变化造成的,但对于自然生境中各种食物资源丰富度的季节性变化,及对杂色山雀取食选择的影响还需进一步研究。
英文摘要:
      Food resources are the most important material foundation and energy source for animal to survive. The Study of the food selection and utilization of birds in different periods, is of great importance for us to understand the plasticity and the ecological adaptability of feeding behavior of birds. In this study, we investigated the food composition and consumption of Varied tit(Parus varius) by observation, video recording and food provisioning experiment during April 2012 to October 2013. The results showed that the feeding habits of varied tit are significant differences between breeding and non-breeding seasons, and the Varied tit mainly eat arthropods in breeding season, but eat a wealth of vegetation and a small amount of arthropods during non-breeding season. In breeding season, the adults mainly eat arthropds including Lepidoptera, spiders, Coleoptera, and they also eat a small amount of Orthoptera, Heteroptera and Hymenoptera; while the diet of young chicks are mainly Lepidoptera larvae(67.86%), followed by spiders, Lepidoptera imago, Hymenoptera , Coleoptera larvae, and a small amounts of Orthoptera. We thought there ware significant differences in diet between nesting and adults, especially in the proportion of Lepidoptera larvae, in which the nestlings’ diet has a extremely high proportion. In non-breeding season, the diet was made up of plant seed(48.91%)and berries(51.09%), the reasult of 16 kinds of potential food applies a higher percentage of berries too. The differences between the food composition and the plasticity of diets may be due to the seasonal changes of the food supply and energy consideration, but the impact of the seasonal variation in the abundance of food resources in the natural habitats on the food choice of Varied tits is still needed further research.
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