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杨世勇,杨坤,刘匆,张凤堂,张修月,宋昭彬.2014.鲇(♀)× 南方鲇(♂)杂交F1胚胎发育观察.动物学杂志,49(2):215-222.
鲇(♀)× 南方鲇(♂)杂交F1胚胎发育观察
The Embryonic Development of Hybrid F1 between Silurus asotus(♀)and S. meridionalis(♂)
投稿时间:2013-07-17  修订日期:2014-03-11
DOI:
中文关键词:  胚胎发育  偏母遗传  杂交    南方鲇
英文关键词:Embryonic development  Maternal inheritance  Hybridization  Silurus asotus  S. meridionalis
基金项目:教育部新世纪优秀人才支持计划项目(No. NCET-11-0347), 通威股份有限公司科研项目(10H0370), 生物资源与生态环境教育部重点实验室开放课题
作者单位E-mail
杨世勇 四川大学生命科学学院 yangshiyong@sicau.edu.cn 
杨坤 四川大学生命科学学院  
刘匆 通威股份有限公司  
张凤堂 四川农业大学水产系  
张修月 四川大学生命科学学院,四川省濒危野生动物保护生物学重点实验室  
宋昭彬 四川大学生命科学学院生物资源与生态环境教育部重点实验室 zbsong@scu.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      通过人工授精获得鲇(Silurus asotus)♀ × 南方鲇(Silurus meridionalis)♂杂交受精卵, 对杂交F1胚胎发育进行了观察和记录, 以期了解杂交鲇早期发育特征并进一步验证鲇与南方鲇杂交的可行性。用0.3%胰蛋白酶液对受精卵进行脱黏处理, 在Leica MZ16 A体式显微镜下进行观察和拍照。早期每隔15min观察一次, 发育至原肠胚阶段后每隔30min观察一次。受精卵及胚体大小长度等用Leica DC500照相系统自带软件进行测量。结果表明, 鲇(♀)× 南方鲇(♂)杂交受精卵呈圆球形, 草绿色, 吸水后膨胀, 卵径(2.50±0.14)mm, 卵膜外形成一层较厚胶膜且黏性较强。在水温(24.5±0.6)℃的情况下, 受精卵在受精后48min形成胚盘, 1h 35min开始卵裂, 4h 23min进入囊胚期, 7h 22min时达到原肠胚期, 11h 23min发育至神经胚期, 随后进入器官分化和逐渐完善的阶段, 28h 49min开始出膜, 40h 33min全部出膜。杂交胚胎的平均受精率为89.7%, 孵化率为55.3%, 初孵仔鱼畸形率为5.9%, 表明南方鲇与鲇的精卵不亲和性程度较小, 二者杂交可行。总体上看, 鲇(♀)× 南方鲇(♂)杂交F1胚胎发育时序、器官分化进程与其母本鲇基本相同, 呈现“偏母遗传”特征。
英文摘要:
      Hybridization was carried out between Silurus asotus (♀) and S. meridionalis (♂) by means of artificial insemination. The embryonic development of hybrid F1 was investigated and the morphological characteristics of each period were described for the clarification of early ontogeny of the hybrids and further verification of the feasibility of hybridization between the S. asotus and S. meridionalis. The fertilized eggs were treated with 0.3% trypsin to remove the stickiness. Observation and photographing were performed by using stereo microscope Leica MZ16 A. Sampling and observation were taken at intervals of 15min at early stage while this was conducted every 30min after gastrula. The size of fertilized eggs and the length of embryos were measured by means of appendix software of Leica DC500 photography system. The fertilized eggs were greenish, spherical in shape. The swollen zygotes were 2.50±0.14mm in diameter and became heavily adhesive with a jelly coat. Under water temperature 24.5±0.6℃, it took 48min after fertilization to form blastoderm, about 1h 35min to undergo cleavage, 4h 23min to develop to early blastula stage, 7h 22min to early gastrula stage, 11h 23min to neurula stage, then to organ differentiation and gradual perfection stage. Larval hatching took place at 28h 49min after fertilization and all larvae hatched at 40h 33min. The fertilization rate, hatching rate and malformation rate were 89.7%, 55.3% and 5.9%, respectively, which indicated that there was a low cross-incompatibility between female S. asotus and male S. meridionalis. The overall embryonic development process and the morphological characters were much closer to those of its maternal fish, S. asotus, featuring significant characteristics of maternal inheritance.
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